Transmedia Storytelling - Crisis Simulations

With @Stephers working on her world-building research, I had cause to revisit some work I had done around transmedia learning / storytelling. Elaine Raybourn of Sandia National Labs and Advanced Distributed Learning Orlando is a key player, but I was trying to find another outfit that I thought was based in Europe. Today I found what I was looking for in a timeline I made for ed-tech back in 2018. It’s kind of interesting if you want to look it over. Short Timeline Education in the Cloud - Google Sheets

The firm was called Conductrr. At the time I don’t think there was anything about crisis acting, but now that seems to be their primary focus. Elaine Raybourn did presented at one of their conferences in 2016.

Their client list includes UK Defence Department and the United Nations.

My gut tells me this short video on hybrid information warfare has a lot of information about how we’re being managed.

They also have a division that works on “pervasive entertainment.” This is that YT channel.

This is a book on transmedia storytelling by the rounder Robert Pratten.

This is another book on the topic by an Italian producer Max Giovagnoli:

https://www.linkedin.com/in/maxgiovagnoli/?originalSubdomain=it

However, let’s start with an example taken, this time, from the experience of an alternate reality game. It all begins on the morning of May 18, 2007, when the face of the actor Aaron Eckhart and the slogan I Believe in Harvey Dent suddenly appear on hundreds of election posters in ten big American cities. But it couldn’t have been an actual election… In fact, after 48 hours, the posters and brochures are brutally vandalized. At this point, the audience’s attention is captured. The mysterious candidate’s face now has dark circles around his eyes, ugly bruises on the cheekbones and a diabolic sneer. During the night, the word “Too” has been added to the slogan. Batman and Marvel Universe lovers are the first to understand what is happening and start to spread the news online. For everyone else, a phantom election website is already online (ibelieveinharleydent.com) and the mystery is revealed: Dent has entered the list of candidates for the District Attorney’s Office in Gotham City, and he needs our votes in order to fight organized crime. Before this faux election campaign, rumors of a Batman Begins sequel had already started to spread. It would be, however, more than a year after the viral marketing’s initiation until the release of The Dark Knight… Another two days pass and another website appears- that of the most formidable opponent of Dent and the election posters’ vandal: the Joker (ibelieveinharveydenttoo.com). At this point, the imaginative universe of the tale is totally set. The movie’s marketing campaign has just started the longest and best paid alternate reality game (ARG) in the history of film promotion, created by 42 Entertainment with Jordan Weisman. But what is an arg in practical terms? Michele Giuliani writes the following about The Dark Knight project: This was just the beginning, if using a specific jargon it is the “Rabbit hole” or “Trailhead” of a long viral campaign, of the innovative variation of the Alternate Reality Game (ARG). […] A sort of role playing game in an environment that is consistent with the merchandized product; an interactive narrative that uses the actual world as a platform, simultaneously involving multiple media in order to develop the plot created by directors, or master-puppets. Thus, gradually, players will deal with a multitude of ad-hoc websites; in parallel with this, they will be involved in some live “treasure hunts” or they will create different events, physically speaking, in the actual world […]. However, unlike a regular role playing game, when playing the ARG you don’t have another identity and time expands through silences and unexpected new clues. Also the 22 rules are not illustrated but they develop by practicing the game. […] Everybody is aware of the fact that it is a game, but you interact with events and characters, considering them as an integral part of reality.[23] A week later, the Joker’s new website (whysoserious.com) urges users to download photos which show how they have vandalized the city or tormented their friends; above all, it urges them to take part in a new crime game “launched” strategically on Halloween night. In November, an online daily newspaper (TheGothamTimes.com) is ‘published’, followed by the TheHa-HaHaTimes.com by the Joker. The newspaper includes links to the Portal of the Gotham Police Department (WeAreTheAnswer.org), the bank that will be held up by the Joker in the trailer (GothamNationalBank.com) and photos of damage to the city incurred during the final pursuit in Batman Begins (GothamCityRail.com). During the following months, the events lead up to a totally unexpected turning point. The death of the actor who plays the Joker (Heath Ledger) forces the creators to shift the ARG’s narrative focus to Harvey Dent’s character, who will, in fact, play Two-Face in the movie, another one of Batman’s arch-enemies. Several weeks are devoted to the diffusion of fake messages sent by Dent via mobile, requests for online submissions to his electoral campaign and distribution of gadgets all over the city… and everything happens without involving the protagonist of the movie (this time his name doesn’t even appear in the title). Meanwhile, the launch of the movie is impending, but there is still time to play one more game. One night in Chicago, the police (the actual ones) stop a public “Dentmobile” full of the attorney’s noisy fans, while a group called “Clowns against Dent” posts some threatening videos on YouTube. Soon after, Dent announces a live web-stream press-conference, which was canceled at the last minute because the candidate was somewhere else. An mp3 file later discloses how in a restaurant (Rossi’sDeli.com), a policeman (FrankNotaro.com) took a woman hostage, asking for the protection of his family and his own life. It was Dent himself who negotiated with the man, first saving the woman, and then assisting in the man’s arrest. At this point, the marketing of experience gives way to the marketing of the story. The alternate world of Dent is the actual one of Batman. The evil face of the Joker on the Web is the tragic one of the dead actor. Grassroots video of amateur ‘joker’ vandals as well as more collective efforts, like one of a surreal duel on a racetrack between a Toyota F1 and 23 Batmobile. The quests and trials promoted by the viral campaign are now replaced by ambient marketing sets, which reshape the urban landscape and bring to mind buildings and skyscrapers of the mythical Gotham; they are also replaced by beamvertising, which promotes the movie thanks to brilliant projections on building and monument facades all around the world. And now the time has come to tell the film’s story. Time to let the characters talk, and no longer autonomously. Time to spotlight the “new” Batman, reaffirming the anagnorisis (or tragic recognition) and the historical message of this superhero created by Kane and Finger: the homousia between Good and Evil, understood as the two inseparable sides of a single matter (which is “doubled” through the comparison Batman/Joker and Batman/Two Face), life and death with only a thin line in between (as also in the narrative).[24] Thus, something more than a simple “launch” of a movie or a basic advergame is created. The creation of a new imaginary universe – arg and viral campaign before, transmedia launch after – is based on some of the fundamental narrative elements of the semiosphere[25] by Lotman (from the characters’ point of view to the audience’s anthropological journey throughout the project), but is always very attentive to the active role of the transmedial audience of the project.

3 Likes

Simultaneously multiplying this process on multiple platforms, the complexity of management and the use of the story increases, and in order to “enchant” the audience, it is consequently necessary to properly follow the imaginative processes. Communication, in a transmedia project, uses two expressive elements at this point of the creative process: the imaginative faculty and the cultural symbols heritage, which are basic for the creation of the collective imagination of its audience. Hence, to do transmedia it is necessary to know the exact process of shaping the human imagination, in order to create, in the most effective way, myths, archetypes and symbols to distribute through the different devices available to the audience. On an imaginative level, Gilbert Durant defines the continuous exchange between the subjective dimension of the user and the more objective one of the surrounding environment as an anthropological path[35], comparing it to a sort of adventurous “path” walked by the user of a tale. In the case of the viewer, sitting alone in front of his computer or tv, for example, all the visual information he receives will be processed by his mind at high speed, as during a long run; the auditory information, instead, will be impressed in his short-term memory in a way that is three times more effective that, as in a brief trip, easing the passage from one image to another and working like the “water wheels of 36 the mind”. Adding to each other – the human imagination develops through the accumulation and specialization of the senses – visual and auditory stimuli will be ordered in logical patterns inside of us: they are called scripts. And imaginative scripts will be divided into neural hubs. This means that they will create a close net of deductive associations and predictions that will lead the spectator to the reconstruction and interpretation of the tale." page 36 https://talkingobjects.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/book-by-max-giovagnoli-transmedia-storytelling-imagery-shapes-and-techniques1.pdf

3 Likes

Transmedia Storytelling: Imagery, Shapes and Techniques

Max Giovagnoli

Media is like pollen, all around us, and inside of us. Each day we collect and stack up pieces from the media, reconstructing layer by layer their invisible scripts, and then we bring them to bed with us every night in our cement beehives. We are in contact with hundreds of communicative environments for 24 hours a day, we put up with about 3000 advertisements and by now we are accustomed to getting information and feel- ings from the media with the total confidence and the same fictional agreement of the five senses that nature gave us. But it is not always like this. The confluence of media involves everything in our collective imagery-making, andby now it enables us to love and engage with a complexity, rather than a simplicity in our stories. And at the same time it brings information and messages to us as well as bringing us to- wards a progressive personalization of consumption, towards an aggregation of transversal expressive spaces (online communities, m-sites, reality shows on tv… ) where we are able to satisfy our desires for a tale’s appropriation and sharing. From this point, the experience can develop the vital energy of transmedia storytelling with the promotion of stories across multiple media that interact with each other in a way that is even more evocative, integrated and participative to the audience. How?

- By creating publishing spaces that, being simultaneously distributed through multiple media, involve different and interactive methods of consumption for the different audiences of the project (even if educating them to its use).

- By making the consumer of each media asset autonomously develop the contents of the project, exposing himself and becoming visibly present and identifiable in the universe of the tale.


Transmedia producers have to know the emotional processes of the human mind very well in order to be able to foresee and imagine solutions that are effective, satisfying and shareable among all the media audiences involved in their projects. Transmedia audiences, in fact, do not simply search for the creation of reasonable and exciting universes and narratives, but evocative universes and narratives, through which they can be spurred to an active intervention in unusual and curious media and cultural and communicative environments. As I said at the beginning of this chapter, in this sense, there are two basic components of the emotional provocation that are particularly effective. The former is the use of an emotional repertoire shared by the members of the audience, and it is important, in particular, for:

** - the initial presentation of the project to its multiple audiences;*
** - the moments of deepest emotion and pathos;*
** - the relation to the eight main emotions (the primary six of anger, fear, joy, surprise, sadness and disgust, and two more, love and shame) to be transmitted on multiple media simultaneously;*

- the moment of the official envoy (climax) in the multiple media of the project.

The second one is the emotional labeling, that is the power to “tag” in order to recognize and reproduce the emotions of the protagonists of the tale with the multiple audiences. It is an ability that humankind achieves during the very first months of life and its development depends onfeedbackprocesses, based on the parallelism among the emotional states and the mimic expression of the human body. A key role in the transmission of emotions in the transmedia is the one of emotional contagion, the immediate and unaware transmission of emotions from a sender to a receiver, who is inclined to experiment with them, as if they were his own.

3 Likes

Wow. Knowledge and technique.

Knowledge: “there are two basic components of the emotional provocation that are particularly effective. The former is the use of an emotional repertoire shared by the members of the audience, and… The second one is the emotional labeling, that is the power to “tag” in order to recognize and reproduce the emotions of the protagonists of the tale with the multiple audiences… A key role in the transmission of emotions in the transmedia is the one of emotional contagion, the immediate and unaware transmission of emotions from a sender to a receiver, who is inclined to experiment with them, as if they were his own.

Technique: [book-2- Robert-Pratten, p14] 1.2 WHAT IS TRANSMEDIA? …A traditional definition of transmedia storytelling would be**: telling a story across multiple platforms, preferably allowing audience participation, such that each successive platform heightens the audience’ enjoyment.[engagement].** To do this successfully, the embodiment of the story in each media needs to be satisfying in its own right while enjoyment from all the media should be greater than the sum of the parts – as illustrated in Figure 2. The problem with the traditional definition is that it is focuses on the how of transmedia storytelling and not the why – it describes the production and not the consumption. If instead we place the audience at the center of the definition then we get much better focus for our work. Now transmedia storytelling could be described as**: taking the audience on an emotional journey that goes from moment-to-moment.** A “moment” is a point in time when we are totally absorbed in the present. Most of our lives are spent in an endless stream of events that mean little or nothing to us; time is like running water – we don’t notice the millions of tiny droplets that make up the stream. We want to take one or more of these millions of tiny droplets of time and make them mean something more – we want to make them memorable and meaningful… to make them a moment. With this second definition we can say that transmedia storytelling is a design philosophy… The crucial difference between transmedia storytelling and multiplatform storytelling is the attempt to create synergy between the content and a focus on an emotional, participatory experience for the audience….”

1 Like

The 2012 Aurora, Colorado movie theater shooting was at the opening night of Batman: The Dark Knight Rises.

Here’s a photo of the man charged and convicted. He appeared to be very high on some government issued drugs during the court proceedings. And that hair! Very strange.

Six years prior to the Aurora event (in 2006, at age 18), Holmes gave this presentation with respect to “Flash Programming” - in the context of writing code for movies. His mentor at the Salk Institute was John Jacobson, who was studying how the neural coding of brightness (as in light flashes/luminance) could influence time perception (think pulsating lights of aurorae, and perhaps augmenting reality via light/temporal illusion).

https://cnl-t.salk.edu

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8618478_Perceived_luminance_depends_on_temporal_context

More background information on James Holmes - as related to his reported DARPA involvement (all information herein would have to be cross-referenced to validate - only some of which I have done):

James Holmes ~ MicroRNA Biomarkers:

https://medschool.cuanschutz.edu/deans-office/leadership/deans-weekly-message/december-17-2018/july-23

Congratulations to Cristin Welle, PhD, assistant professor in neurosurgery and bioengineering, on receiving a $2 million grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to pilot the use of peripheral neuromodulation to accelerate motor learning. The grant, which will be received over four years, comes from the DARPA Biological Technologies Office through the Targeted Neuroplasticity Training program, led by Tristan McClure-Begley, PhD, who had been on the CU Boulder faculty prior to joining DARPA in October 2017. The goals of this project are to understand the effects of precisely timed stimulation of the vagus nerve during motor learning on motor performance, and to utilize optogenetics, electrophysiology and in vivo two-photon imaging to investigate the mechanisms that underlie this effect. This work could lead to translational opportunities using invasive or non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation to improve rehabilitation from stroke or to drive enhancements in the learning and performance of skilled tasks. (my emphasis)

1 Like
1 Like

More with respect to encoded culture, military simulation, and augmented reality - in the context of James Holmes and DC Comics’ The Dark Knight (Batman/Joker) . . .

A paper co-authored by John Jacobson (James Holmes’ mentor at Salk Institute):

“Explaining why the perceived brightness of a flash is modified by temporal relationships with its neighbors: The commitment, adaptation, and comparison model” (emphasis added to attempt to demonstrate connection below - blurring the lines between DC Comics and “real” life - a là transmedia storytelling)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245611904_Explaining_why_the_perceived_brightness_of_a_flash_is_modified_by_temporal_relationships_with_its_neighbors_The_commitment_adaptation_and_comparison_model

The takeaway is that we are aware of of brightness changes, and these visual changes get perceived neurologically, which then changes our experience of temporal events. A briefly presented FLASH can result in temporal asynchrony (altered time perception).

Jacobson’s co-author, David Eagleman:

What DC Comics family of characters comes to mind when we hear flashes of light and temporal distortion?

The Allen family - Barry Allen and Bart Allen (Barry’s grandson - AKA Impulse)

Attachment-1-48

Referring back to James Holmes’ courtroom image - do you see an underlying template echoed in the images of DC Comics’ Bart Allen?

In 2017, it was reported that Holmes was transferred to a high-security federal prison in Pennsylvania called Penitentiary Allenwood. (See the Allen?)


https://panda.salk.edu

We study the molecular bases of circadian timekeeping mechanism in mammals. We intend to understand the mechanism of light perception by specialized light sensitive ganglion cells of the retina which photo-entrain the master circadian oscillator resident in the hypothalamic SCN. We also want to understand the regulatory mechanisms which maintain a near 24 hours molecular rhythm in core oscillator components, and generate rhythms in gene function that ultimately produce several overt rhythms in physiology and behavior. (my emphasis)

Presently, there is an ongoing media story about Ezra Miller - the offspring of Robert (Bob) Miller (of Disney-Hyperion) - paralleling the notions of mental health, jail time, and The Flash (as invoked 10 years ago in the 2012 James Holmes Aurora, CO story, which I detailed above). Note that the Ezra Miller stories consistently weave in temporal messaging (ie - timeline, chronology, snowballing).

Encoded in this pop culture narrative, I see the imprinting of twinning - as it seems there may be a resemblance between Ezra Miller (who plays DC Comics Barry Allen) and James Holmes (whom I perceive as a real-life symbolic depiction of DC comics Bart Allen, Barry Allen’s grandson).

Note: Robert Miller’s Hyperion published Bad Twin in May 2006 - the same year that James Holmes presented his talk about his work with Flash Programming (coding for movies) at the Salk Institute, under the auspices of John Jacobson (video linked above).




Plenty of Batman/Joker messaging has bubbled to the surface with this story…

Whatever it is that Bob will be publishing will be printed on demand, or you will be able to read it on your Kindle-type device, or, eventually, by using implanted technology in your eyeballs that will allow you to turn pages by blinking. (my emphasis)

On neuroscientist David Eagleman referenced above…

“David Eagleman may be the best combination of scientist and fiction-writer alive.” ~ Stewart Brand

Moving forward - in the context of transmedia storytelling - I think we need to keep an eagle eye on Eagleman…Do you think he knows precisely how color (specifically, magenta) influences the human brain?

Often called the Carl Sagan of neuroscience, he’s the scientific advisor on HBO’s Westworld, a bestselling author, and host of the new documentary The Creative Brain, now streaming on Netflix. Whether he’s expounding on the careful balance between routine and novelty, or how leaders can embrace risk and disruption, he provides a vivid, inspiring take on cultivating the right attitude for discovery. As the host of PBS’ Emmy-nominated series The Brain, Eagleman was the charismatic tour guide through the most impressive series—in content and dazzling style—ever produced on neuroscience. A Guggenheim Fellow and winner of the McGovern Award for Excellence in Biomedical Communication, he’s also traded jokes with Stephen Colbert and been featured in Italy’s Style magazine.

Eagleman’s accolades—both popular and academic—prove his rare ability to make advanced science relevant, accessible, and fun. The Director of the Center of Science and Law, Eagleman is also the founder of BrainCheck, an exciting new app that test neurocognitive functions. Named a Science Educator of the Year by the Society of Neuroscience, he is also a research fellow in the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies and an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. His talk at TED on creating new senses for humans—illustrated by his original invention, the VEST (Versatile Extra-Sensory Transducer), which translates sounds into vibrations for deaf users—earned him a standing ovation on the main stage.

His widely celebrated books include New York Times bestseller Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain and The Brain: The Story of You, of which Stephen Fry says, “on every page there is a revelation so fantastic as to make one gasp.” His short fiction collection SUM was translated into 27 languages, and inspired U2 producer Brian Eno to write twelve new pieces of music, which they performed together at the Sydney Opera House. Recently, Eagleman’s critically acclaimed digital book Why The Net Matters was updated and reissued as an e-book (and audiobook) called The Safety Net: Surviving Pandemics and Other Disasters. In it, he reveals why the advent of the Internet has helped us sidestep the existential threats—from pandemics and natural disasters, to political corruption and economic meltdown—that have brought down previous civilizations. Regardless of the audience, Eagleman can unpack the full range of applications (for memory, business, decision-making, technology, education, the law, and more) we get from a more nuanced understanding of the brain—and make it fun. (my emphasis).

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324916811_The_Brain_-_Eagleman_10

As humans, we can perceive less than a ten-trillionth of all light waves. “Our experience of reality,” says neuroscientist David Eagleman, “is constrained by our biology.” He wants to change that. His research into our brain processes has led him to create new interfaces to take in previously unseen information about the world around us.

https://hls.ted.com/project_masters/3938/manifest.m3u8?intro_master_id=2346

Fascinating comment and information. Really appreciate all of this. My partner and I have been watching the newer Dark Crystal series which is a prequal to the 80s dark crystal movie by Jim Henson of the Muppets.

There’s alot going on in the show/movie. The life essence of the home planet Thra is held by the “crystal of truth” which becomes controlled by the “Skeksis” who use it to dominate the planet, drain the life essence of other life forms, and drink it for immortality.

The older one has a really beautiful design and I would recommend it just for the ascetics.

Guess its not directly related to the posts above, but just wanted to share

1 Like

Exactly Alison, that is why I trust the words you and your friends speak. You use none of this transmedia trickery. The alt media is full of it and makes it easy for me to weed out the psyops. The first few seconds is telling and if it continues I know for sure.

Do you have any insights to the effects this transmedia subluminal trickery had on the minds of people who bough in this latest real-estate buying frenzy. Something I have never seen in my life time. Talking mainly about here on the west coast of Canada where real estate prices doubled in five years. For example a house worth $600,000.00 is now worth $1,200,000.00. All happening within the midst of a scary fake pandemic no less. Did the scary subliminal images, audio etc hitting them 24/7 make them act irrational? Were they made to believe that certain places in North American were the safest places to live to safe guard against dying from this fake pathogen? Mind boggling indeed!

Thank you Stephers, the YouTube video is awesome, which adds to everything else you are so graciously alerting us too.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248666308_Jakob_von_Uexkull_An_introduction

Placing these links here for future reference/elaboration - as they relate to transmedia storytelling, crisis simulations, and imprinting outcomes in reality (AKA predictive programming, inducing evolution via networked narrative)…

https://deim.urv.cat/~sergio.gomez/papers/Sole-Ribalta-Spectral_properties_of_the_Laplacian_of_multiplex_networks+suppl.pdf

Empires party specialists coming to a place near you, to prey on your young adolescent children.
Transmedia and close to home. Not sure if there are other young party scientists in your neck of the woods, but I would pay attention to what is happening at these events if they are. I know this young man very well who runs a party specialist company out of Vancouver BC. This person by the name of Jacque who is the son of good friends and was a good friend of my son. He is an extremely bright 25 year old. The skipping grade 12 type to be excepted into university. In the past three years he has left university to embark on this new venture. Apparently starting it on his own from out of the blue . As I dug deeper I noticed he has connections to this organization called rockdoc https://rockdocinc.ca/about/#team. Here is Jacque’s Linkedin profile https://www.linkedin.com/in/thepartyscientist My gut feeling is that this rockdoc organization is steering these party events with Empire lurking in the background. Using my friend’s son as the messenger to send transmedia subliminal messages to the “YOUNG” nondrinking, nondrug taking super urban target group.
There could be other rockdocs near you organizing these urban nondrinking party events.
All the transmedia markings are easily spotted. The flashing lights, the techno music, etc, etc and of course the magenta!

Here are some links to observe, which got me thinking:

Jacque’s party specialist companies:

rockdoc organization:

https://ca.linkedin.com/company/rockdoc-consulting-inc.?trk=public_profile_experience-item_profile-section-card_subtitle-click

1 Like

THE SCIENCE! Interesting!!!
It is to polished for Jacque to have pulled this off on his own!!!

1 Like

image
The magenta / emerald green logo is to obvious not to take notice. This is backed by Empire for sure. Empire chooses these bright ones who are good public speakers. Not sure if Jacque fully grasps what he is part of. It is a shame to have one of our best and brightest reduced to nothing more than one of Empires dancing bears.

1 Like

RE: David Eagleman and Synesthesia (and Eagleman’s colleague, Richard Cytowic)

I am leaving some placeholders here, intending to circle back to them later (as well as expand with further additions)…

I suggest synesthesia is immensely important to W0RLDBU1LD1NG/culture creation/augmenting reality (including the magenda) and permeates (subliminally) transmedia storytelling strategies via artificial induction…


https://cytowic.net/speaking/ted-talks/

https://www.visitnorman.com/events/factory-obscuras-synesthesia-exhibit

https://pressbooks.umn.edu/sensationandperception/chapter/synesthesia/

SUPER IMPORTANT

Start at the 5:00 timestamp…Do you see the Mickey Mousing/Mickey Mouse template? Do you see the symbology of neurons/dendrites? How about any Luna moth/pupa encoding? (Magenta infusion at the 1:27 timestamp)

Take something like “Toccata and Fugue in D Minor,” for example, which starts simply as flashes of light and basic abstractions before slowly finding form. That’s the piece which opens Fantasia , not “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice.” And why? Because it opens the mind, especially the youthful mind, to experience sounds, both tonal and atonal, not simply as music but as color. And seeing music as color tingles the same part of the brain that causes the kind of synesthesia where we associate a color or a number with a taste or even a personality. That’s the real potency within Fantasia 's dramatic, animated presentation.

1 Like

You do not make it on main stream news unless Empire wants you on main stream news. Feats of The Party Scientist Across 12 Countries - YouTube

More videos by the party expert’s YouTube channel. https://www.youtube.com/c/ThePartyScientist/videos

1 Like