Primary Water, Transition Zone Water, Mantle Rain, Mantle Dynamics, Whole-Mantle Convection, Mineral Physics, Olivine/Peridot, Wadsleyite, Ringwoodite, Weather Engineering, Remote Sensing

“A New State of Water Reveals a Hidden Ocean in Earth’s Mantle”

Until recently, the idea that water came to Earth from somewhere else in the solar system seemed to have more support, but studies conducted by the European Space Agency on the Rosetta missions showed that water almost certainly didn’t come from comets. Wendy Panero, associate professor of earth sciences at Ohio State, and doctoral student Jeff Pigott believe that when the Earth formed, it had huge bodies of water in its interior, and has been continuously supplying water to the surface via plate tectonics, circulating material upward from the mantle.

The thing is, when we’re talking about water in the mantle, it’s not actually liquid water – what seems dry to the human eye may actually have significant quantities of water – in the form of hydrogen and oxygen waters. Hydrogen is typically stored in crystal voids and defects, while oxygen is usually plentiful in most minerals. Certain reactions can free up the hydrogen and oxygen, resulting in water; but could it be enough water to amount for the oceans we see today?

The key element here is ringwoodite.

High-Pressure Olivine

Olivine is a magnesium-iron silicate typically found in the mantle and igneous rocks. However, in the mantle, at very high pressures and temperatures, the olivine structure is no longer stable. Below depths of about 410 km (250 mi) olivine undergoes a transformation, transforming into ringwoodite or bridgmanite. Ringwoodite is notable for being able to contain hydroxide ions (oxygen and hydrogen atoms bound together) and previous research has already shown that the earth’s mantle holds huge quantities of water.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10583532_Bercovici_D_Karato_S_Whole-mantle_convection_and_the_transition-zone_water_filter_Nature_425_39-44

https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1253358

Imgur

Transparent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot, the French word for olivine. It is also called chrysolite, from the Greek words for gold and stone. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.

Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite, and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas, and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth’s upper mantle, and olivine is one of the Earth’s most common minerals by volume. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine, or forsterite.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivine

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Water-contents-of-olivine-as-a-function-of-physical-and-chemical-variables-a-Pressure_fig3_46111173

Oceans cover 71% of the Earth’s surface. They play an important role in the water cycle that circulates water through the atmosphere. But did you know that there’s also a deep water cycle? It describes how tectonic plates water carry water into the Earth’s mantle. There, it’s absorbed by a mineral called ringwoodite . Later, the water escapes the ringwoodite and travels back to the surface inside magma .

http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM59/AM59_475.pdf

What is ringwoodite? How does it form?

@AMcD

Until recently, scientists had never seen ringwoodite from inside the Earth. To study the mineral, they had to synthesize it in a lab or extract it from meteorites. In 2014, a tiny sample of the mineral was extracted from the Earth for the first time. A grain was found inside a diamond mined in Brazil. The tiny fragment was less than 40 micrometres long.

https://skyfallmeteorites.com/education-research/glossary/ringwoodite/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237242300_The_olivine-wadsleyite_phase_transformation_in_mantle_peridotite

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03426

en.wikipedia.org

Wadsleyite

Wadsleyite is an orthorhombic mineral with the formula β-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4. It was first found in nature in the Peace River meteorite from Alberta, Canada. It is formed by a phase transformation from olivine (α-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4) under increasing pressure and eventually transforms into spinel-structured ringwoodite (γ-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4) as pressure increases further. The structure can take up a limited amount of other bivalent cations instead of magnesium, but contrary to the α and γ structures, a β structure w…

In values of weight percent oxide, the pure magnesian variety of wadsleyite would be 42.7% SiO2 and 57.3% MgO by mass. An analysis of trace elements within wadsleyite shows a large number of elements: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). This suggests that the concentrations of these elements could be larger than what has been supposed in the transition zone of Earth’s upper mantle. Moreover, these results help in understanding chemical differentiation and magmatism inside the Earth.


https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008JB005734

Mr. Burr was born in Guatemala when his father was an international development manager; between stints in California, Oregon and Virginia he also lived in Colombia, Egypt and the Philippines before returning to Washington, D.C., where his father ultimately retired from the U.S. Department of State. After serving four years in the U.S. Marine Corps, Mark graduated with a B.A. in Middle East Studies from the University of Utah in 1989 and was awarded Phi Beta Kappa. Following employment at the World Bank Group he attended the American Graduate School of International Management - Thunderbird and received his Master of International Management in January of 1993 after coordinating a one-month seminar in Kuwait on post-war reconstruction. Mark then worked for over a decade in export management and international sales, developing markets in the Middle East/Africa and Latin America/Caribbean for a broad range of US manufacturers, including seven years with Steelcase, Inc.-- three as Country Manager in Saudi Arabia and four in Latin America and the Caribbean.

In July 2004 Mark was invited to work as Senior Advisor to the Iraqi Ministry of Industry & Minerals at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, serving as a State Department diplomat until June 2006. Upon leaving Iraq he launched his consulting firm and has been engaged by Grant Thornton in Iraq, by PIPC (UK) in Saudi Arabia, and by a number of manufacturing and service companies to develop markets in the Middle East. In 2011, Mark was a founding associate of J. Streicher Advisory, a sister company of the NYSE specialist firm J. Streicher & Co., through which he drives business development and advisory services in Washington, D.C. Mark then launched J. Streicher Ventures, now Primary Water Technologies LLC, together with J. Streicher CEO Tom Brown with the mission to be the first global water exploration and production (Water E&P) venture using a programmatic approach to explore for and produce earth-generated Primary Water using advanced remote sensing, geophysical data analytics, pinpoint locating and precision drilling. Initial projects were undertaken at the Riess Institute’s Totten Field in South Hamilton, MA; in Kurdistan, Iraq; Shobak, Jordan; and near the Salton Sea in California. (my emphasis)

If we are beginning to form an organization and a group of us men getting together to index our work, our petrographic, our crystallographic, our geological structural conditions, I am sure that it will be only a short while from now to train men and go out and determine the location and produce water wherever we wish. There is no limit, state or country. ~ Stephan Riess, 1953

The theory of earth-generated water was primarily developed by a German scientist, Stephan Riess, who created the term “primary water”. He discovered many hundreds of wells in the US and globally in the second half of the 20th century by locating drilling points and drilling bore holes in base rock formations. He did what he announced to do in an interview in 1953 and was extremely successful.

Stephan Riess and Dr. Armin Bickel knew each other and worked together on some projects.

Stephan Riess became the mentor/teacher/well drilling partner of Hydro-Geologist Pal Pauer, the founder of the Primary Water Institute. Pal Pauer collaborates with Mark Burr from Primary Water Technologies who is our cooperation partner in the United States. (my emphasis)

While rarely acknowledged, though referenced in the Bible and other ancient texts, the Earth’s magma and geology is in fact the source of our planet’s most pure water. This water appears in unexpected places such as mountain springs and desert oases. Have you ever wondered how a spring could defy gravity and surface at high elevations on the top of a mountain, or provide a green oasis in the middle of a desert? Primary Water isn’t a mystery, though access to this technology has been largely suppressed historically and only recently begun to emerge in open discussions within scientific communities.

Along with its abundance, the advantages and value of Primary Water include that it is clean water which has never been in contact with the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier, access is largely dependent on geography and geology rather than climate and atmospheric rainfall. It is readily available in drought as well as normal rainfall years. It can also be localized to certain areas and needs – and, under the right geologic conditions, is plentiful and readily accessible.

All water originates as Primary Water deep in the mantle of the Earth. Under pressure, it then makes its way to the surface via faults and fissures in the form of volcanic steam, artesian springs, geysers, and oases. The defining characteristic of Primary Water is that it has never before been on the surface of the Earth and is therefore free of surface pollutants. When it approaches the Earth’s surface, Primary Water mixes with water already here and then becomes part of the Hydrologic Cycle. Skilled Primary Water experts are able to locate the water as it nears the earth’s surface, thus reducing the depth of drilling normally required for water wells.

This magazine offers a snapshot of some of the 20th and 21st Century pioneers of Primary Water research as well as an overview of numerous success stories where Primary Water has come to the rescue - especially in drought years.

Thousands of Primary Water wells already provide fresh water in Australia, the United States, and Africa. Many villages in Africa have experienced tremendous improvements in their quality of life due to Primary Water wells. Primary Water is a valuable source of water that could also help refill reservoirs, resupply over-tapped rivers such as the Colorado River, and support agricultural needs.

Could Primary Water solve our global water crisis? And, might Primary Water offer hope for mankind – and the future survival of Planet Earth? A resounding yes on both accounts! Primary Water may well be a missing link to solving water shortages and hunger around the world. (my emphasis)

http://www.primarywaterinstitute.org/images/pdfs/PWI_Interview.pdf

I: Do we have enough potable water for our world?

P: In fact we have more water today than we’ve ever had in the history of the planet. The point is that we don’t always have the water in the places we would like to have it if we rely only on the secondary water cycle, which is totally reliant on that which evaporates. The planet itself has enough potable water within it, which could see us through these weather cycles, which we have for many unknown reasons. We have a back up system, which is this planet.

https://waterconf.org


I intend to link back to this in the near future – leaving now as a placeholder:

h/t @AMcD


Esoterically speaking (RE: Transmedia Storytelling) – think archetypes/templates/subliminal imprinting . . .

When watching Godzilla vs. Kong last night, I saw an image (sorry for the very amateur screenshot - see above) that seemed to very closely resemble Wadsleyite and/or Ringwoodite. See Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite (below) to compare:

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Stephan Reiss 1985 home videos —interesting and worth a listen to comprehend the scheme of safeguarding primary water and foisting the ‘treated’ and reclaimed water on the public.

Primary water is essentially a discovery of the mining industry.

“Deborah Tavares discusses Primary Water” Deborah Tavares discusses PRIMARY WATER - YouTube —she mentions Stephan Reiss having worked with Willard Libby, UCBerkeley chemist on the Atomic Energy Commission.


Stephan Ernst Riess (26 December 1898 – 17 December 1985) was a German geochemist, mineralogist and geo-hydrologist who immigrated to the US after World War I. He worked for over five decades, located over 800 water wells, and studied the concept of earth-generated water, also known as “new water” or “primary water”,

Riess’s theories and exploits were chronicled in what is considered to be the primary water textbook, “New Water for a Thirsty World” by University of Southern California economics professor Michael Salzman published in 1960, with a foreword by Aldous Huxley.[1] Salzman learned of Riess as a result of numerous news articles chronicling Riess’s exploits during the 1950s.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Riess introduced the term “primary water” into English, for what in mainstream geology is known as juvenile water. He called “the new water he finds “primary” because of its close association with primary minerals.”[14] In 1957, Encyclopædia Britannica’s Book of the Year wrote the following on The “New Water” Theory of Stephan Riess:[15] “Stephan Riess of California formulated a theory that ‘new water’ which never existed before, is constantly being formed within the earth by the combination of elemental hydrogen and oxygen and that this water finds its way to the surface, and can be located and tapped, to constitute a steady and unfailing new supply.”

Riess ultimately formulated the Theory of Primary Water and through the applied science of geo-hydrology, the study of surface waters of deep Earth origin, worked to end water scarcity globally.

Biography[edit]

Born in 1898 to the Prussian Army officer Herman Franz Wolf Riess von Scheurnschloss and his wife (née Koch) in Dillingen on the Danube, Kingdom of Bavaria (by that date part of the German Empire), he joined a “school ship” at the age of 14 to train to become a sailor. A few years later he served aboard a German Navy ship that was sunk during the 1916 Battle of Jutland in the North Sea. He was saved from the frigid sea by the British and became a prisoner of war. While a POW in England he began to learn English. After World War I he returned to Germany, where he studied chemistry and metallurgy. Affected by the crisis of the post-war years of the Weimar Republic, Riess would travel to Australia and South America and ultimately the United States where he ended up in California working industrial mine concerns.

During the late 1920s and early 1930s while working at mines throughout the American Southwest he experienced frequent flooding of mining operations by what seemed to him as inexplicable and sometimes immense flows of subterranean water.[16] Riess began to study these phenomena as a new area of research. While working for Hoover Family interests in El Dorado Canyon south of Las Vegas, Nevada, where all water was piped great distance and elevation from the Colorado River, Riess worked with a crew to hand dig his first primary water well. When the source was struck, laborers scrambled from the pit to avoid drowning; eventually the free-flowing water created a lagoon until it was brought under control.

Theory of primary water[edit]

Steve Riess - Simi Valley

As a mining engineer in the 1940s Riess had access to government and mining company assay laboratories. In order to investigate the problem of subterranean water which caused certain mines to have to be abandoned, he began taking soil and rock samples from the failed mines and submitted them to chemical analysis. Riess thereby developed a body of test data leading to a previously undetected pattern. These waters, he noted:

Emanated from below and surged upward, often to elevations far above the water table even in zones of no known aquifer with little precipitation, usually in hard rock

Was chemically associated with Plutonic rock (which solidifies deep in the Earth where the cooling is slow and the various minerals have had time to crystallize) and not with any of the aggregate usually associated with meteoric water

Traveled in a vertical or semi-vertical direction from the interior of the Earth toward the surface in hard rock faults or fissures

By 1954, often together with drilling manager Jim Scott, Riess had sited and drilled 70 of these hard rock wells, usually located in distressed areas of little rainfall. In the midst of an extended drought in California, his work would come to the attention of news reporters, water resource bureaucrats, politicians, businessmen, farmers and industry leading to the publication of Salzman’s book in 1960. By the late 1970s, he had drilled more than 800 wells that were supplied by what he regarded as primary water, and attracted a group of professionals who would launch The Riess Foundation and, in the 1980s, The Riess Institute to train the next generation of primary water specialists. Christopher Bird nominated Riess in 1982 for the Right Livelihood Award, considered the alternative Nobel Prize. The committee asked that his name be resubmitted in 1983. His legacy continues in the vision of the Primary Water Institute established by his protege and friend Pal Pauer.

Reiss’s theory received much publicity in the popular press during his life, and has become popular with dowsers.[17] His theory of primary water received very little support from John Mann Jr - a groundwater scientist in the 1950s.[18] Riess’ assertion that there are large volumes of potable primary water (what geologists now recognise as juvenile water) had been examined in the 1960s and rejected by hydrologists of the California Department of Water Resources and the US Geological Survey. Scientists from both organizations found no evidence that water pumped from Riess-located wells was anything but normal groundwater derived from downward-infiltrating precipitation.[19] The California Department of Water Resources compiled information on wells located by Riess, and of the 11 wells for which they had reliable information, yields varied from 0 to 90 gallons per minute, with an average of 19 gallons per minute artesian flow, with no data on the range of 500 to 3,000 gallons per minute pumping rate claimed by Riess for his wells.[20]

As of 2015 the United States Department of the Interior recognised Riess’s Primary Water theories under the name juvenile water.[21]

As a result of a series of field and laboratory experiments dating back 15 years—conducted primarily by seismologists, geochemists, mineralogists and geophysicists—the theory that water is produced deep within the planet and is an addition to the hydrologic cycle has now been proven (2017):

“This is one way water can form on Earth,” says team member John Tse at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. “We show it’s possible to have water forming in Earth’s natural environment, rather than being of extraterrestrial origin.”

Criticism[edit]

Riess’s theory of primary water was criticized in mainstream geological and hydrological publications, including those of the US Geological Survey;”[23] the California Division of Mines and Geology,[24] the National Water Well Association,[25] and the American Water Works Association.[26]

The existence of juvenile water has been commonly accepted by mainstream groundwater scientists, such as those of the US Geological Survey, since the 1920s.[27] The disagreement has been that juvenile water – what Reiss called primary water, is considered by most groundwater scientists to be too highly mineralized to be potable.[28] In a 1963 criticism of the Riess theory published by the US Geological Survey, C. L. McGuinness wrote:

There is no doubt that new water reaches the earth’s surface from the interior. Geologists call it “juvenile water.” … It is invariably high in mineral content, however;”[29]

Geologists from the California Department of Water Resources investigated a number of wells cited by Reiss as examples of high-yield primary water wells. They reported that the actual flow rates were in most cases much lower than claimed by Riess. In addition, oxygen isotope analysis of the water identified it as of meteoric origin.[30]

In an editorial “New nonsense for a thirsty world,” the Water Well Journal called attention to Reiss’ failures at Alpine, Texas and Camp Desert Rock, Nevada [this is on the Nevada Test Site “nuclear battlefield” for ground troops–JL] . The editorial noted that the Riess-located well at Avalon [Catalina Island], California, favorably mentioned by Salzman on page 51 of New Water for a Thirsty World, produced only 20 gallons per minute. It also noted that in discussing the supposed sale of Riess’ Simi Valley wells to Clint Murchison for $1 million, Salzman failed to inform readers that Murchison paid Riess only $108,000 as a down payment, but after testing the wells and finding that they did not perform as Riess had promised, Murchison cancelled the deal.[31]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Home video of interview of Stephan Riess in 1985, Part I on YouTube

Home video of interview of Stephan Riess in 1985, Part II on YouTube

The Primary Water Institute


Stephan Reiss home interview Sept.22 1985 What is Primary Water? 1985 Interview with Dr. Stephan Riess - YouTube

John Day River (primary water) Oregon, mentioned in the home video John Day River, Oregon


Willard Libby –UCBerkeley chemist, MED with Harold Urey at Columbia working on gaseous diffusion with uranium hexafluoride. Libby had significant involvement with the use of tritium, or radioactive hydrogen (gas or water) as (a) a neutron source in thermonuclear reactions and (b) a water ‘tracer’ for dating water sources—Libby is famous (with a Nobel) for developing Radiocarbon Dating (with C-14)

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@jenlake

Thank you Jen for this excellent information. I recall Deborah Tavares speaking in detail about Primary Water a number of years ago (even prior to 2021). I think it was one of the first introductions I had to this fairly unknown concept.

“It’s hard to get the point across to many people in the U.S. that the Earth makes water. We can access it and solve our problems. We don’t need massive storage facilities or aqueducts. Clean, virtually infinite sources of water are right under our feet." — Pal Pauer

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https://www.plasteritelfe.com/the-divining-hand/

p. 10-14

http://merlib.org/node/5062

By 1958, Riess’s work was noticed by the Israeli government and they invited him to find water for their new city of Eliat on the Red Sea’s Gulf of Aquaba. Riess met with the then Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and his advisors who urged him to go ahead with his search for water as soon as possible. On May 29, 1959, the Jerusalem Post announced that the Riess-located well was sufficient enough to supply a city of more than 100,000 people including industry and outlying villages!

Stephan Riess, through his study of mine flooding, developed a science of locating flows of Earth-generated water. These waters which often deposit minerals and flood out mines occur worldwide as spectacular springs and are even more accessible by drilling into hidden rock structure. The Riess Institute’s scientific application of petrology, mineralogy, structural geology, aerial reconnaissance and remotely sensed data, offers “new water” for a thirsty world.

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And for us surface drinkers….

The Significance of Tritium Releases to the Environment

Authors: John J. Koranda, Lynn R. Anspaugh, John R. Martin

[1972]Summary: Tritium is produced naturally [by cosmic radiation in the atmosphere but accounting for only 1%, see the friendsofbruce.ca CANDU citation below—JL] and was present in low concentrations in precipitation and natural bodies of water before atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Other sources of tritium are now present from which tritium is released to the environment. Nuclear reactor tritium production, according to recent estimates, will equal natural tritium production before the year 2000. Predicted increases of tritium in the environment will take place first on a local ecological level and then appear on a biospheric level. Tritium introduced into the environment as THO will move through ecological systems in the same manner as stable water. Tritium will enter the hydrologic cycle either via evapo-transpiration or the surface bodies of water. Ecological experiments have been conducted to determine the movement of tritium in the environment. Field-grown plants were exposed to liquid and vapor THO for periods of one-half and one hours. Tritium concentrations were determined in leaf samples collected after exposure for periods of time up to 45 days. Tritium decays rapidly in the plant species studied and exhibited a three component half-life when plants were exposed to THO vapor. The length of exposure, and sources of THO in the soil affect the half-time of tritium in the plant tissues. Data produced in ecological experiments on tritium movement are used in a theoretical consideration of acute and chronic vapor releases of tritium in an agricultural environment. https://www.worldcat.org/title/5871567561

Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

[2016]”The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the ‘Spring Leak’ phenomenon… elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.” Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California - ScienceDirect

Overview of tritium records from precipitation and surface waters in Germany

[2019]“Tritium is one of the most important environmental tracers in isotope hydrology for understanding the dynamics of groundwater and connected surface water and has been used in a wide range of applications at different scales… Radiation protection regulation requires the monitoring of tritium concentration in precipitation and in major streams and coastal waters of Germany used as federal water ways. Since the 1970s, the BfG collects samples and measures the tritium concentration in rivers, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea as well as in precipitation.” https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.13691#:~:text=Natural%20tritium%20is%20formed%20mainly%20in%20the%20atmosphere,and%20thus%20the%20hydrological%20cycle%20of%20the%20earth.

Measuring Tritium in Water

[2021] Measuring tritium in water and tritium in seawater continuously on a real-time basis is an exceptionally difficult task due to tritium’s low beta emission energy (18.6 keV maximum, 5.6 keV mean) and the shielding properties of water. Traditionally, liquid scintillation counting has been used to determine low level tritium concentration in water, although this method is typically performed by manually taking a sample and analyzing it later.

Overhoff has developed several novel solutions for measuring ultra-low levels of tritium in water on a real-time, continuous basis. Applications include: measuring heavy-water leaks in nuclear power plants (especially of the CANDU type) as well as monitoring tritium concentration in groundwater, drinking water, seawater, and liquid effluents… Measuring Tritium in Water and Seawater in Real-Time, Continuously | Overhoff Technology Corporation

“What are the sources of tritium?
Less than 1% of tritium occurs naturally (e.g. through the interaction of cosmic rays with molecules of certain elements in the upper atmosphere).
Most of tritium is man made; fallout from thermonuclear weapons testing, begun in the 1940s, is a source of tritium in the global environment; nuclear power reactors are also a large source of tritium.
Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors are the largest Canadian point source of tritium; CANDU reactors use deuterium oxide or “heavy water” as both a moderator and a coolant, and effectively “breed” tritium as the nuclear fission process releases free neutrons (i.e. tritium atoms are created when a deuterium atom absorbs an additional neutron)…
At the Bruce nuclear complex, tritium is released to the station cooling water effluent stream (Condenser Cooling Water) which discharges into Lake Huron… Tritium can also be released to the air by venting of the plants and incineration of low level waste.

…According to UNSCEAR, a CANDU reactor also normally releases over 20 times the amount of tritium to the environment (water and air) than a U.S. light water reactor.
The majority of tritium in Lake Huron and Lake Ontario is a byproduct of CANDU nuclear operations.” Tritium in Drinking Water Notes.

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In case anyone wants it, I downloaded a copy of "New Water For A Thirsty World.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Soon after the onset of the “great depression”, the author found that his need to work full time necessitated that he reduce his engineering studies to a part time basis. While still in his teens he became president of a rubber workers union and several years later obtained an engineering assignment with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

After the eruption of World War II, the author saw active duty with the U.S. Navy Reserve and advanced from apprentice seaman, through most of the intervening grades, to Lieutenant. His active duty over, he became an engineer with the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office and then held an engineering administrative position as head of an operations and planning section which included a large research unit. Later, he became Deputy Director of the Distribution Control Office.

Coupled with the above were school and other activities. The author took a degree in economics and graduate work culminating, after the com pletion of all required course work, in the satisfactory passage of Ph.D. examinations in the following fields: business finance; organization and management; social psychology; social science research methods, and socio logical theories. His other activities included such diverse accomplishments as: invention of an aerial cameria; research in psychophysiology; membership in naval research reserves in the biological sciences; paper before the National Research Council Vision Committee; membership on a naval board of civil service examiners; appearance on the Johns Hopkins University Science Review TV program “Mapping from the Sky”; president of a $7 million housing cooperative, and impartial chairman of a tripartite labor arbitration board—writing one of those rare findings wherein the representatives of both management and labor concurred.

In 1952, the author was general chairman for the eighteenth annual meeting of the American Society of Photogrammetry and as chairman of its program committee sponsored a panel on an accelerated surveying andmapping program which included the following participants: W. E. Wrather, Director, U.S. Geological Survey; W. H. Bradley, Chief Geologist, Geologic Branch, U.S.G.S.; Gerald Fitzgerald, Chief, Topographic Branch, U.S.G.S.; A. Nelson Sayre, Geologist in Charge, Ground Water Division, U.S.G.S.; Marion Clawson, Director, Bureau of Land Management; Rear Adm. Robert F. A. Studds, Director, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; Albert H. Moseman, Chief, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering; and Robert H. Randall, Chief Examiner, Surveying and Mapping Division, Bureau of the Budget.

Out of his varied “problem solving oriented” career, the author, for the last six years, has focused his incisive attention on our water shortages and been preoccupied with the research for this book. During much of this period he has also been on the faculty of the School of Commerce, University of Southern California. He is a member of the Society of American Military Engineers, American Economic Association, Western Economic Association, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (APA), the American Statistical Association, and the West Coast Geological Society.

You pretty much covered it all Stephers. What’s your take on what happened to Muammar Gaddafi and his great man made river. Sounds like he was one of the first to tap into this primary source water in a big way and for the good of his people. I guess Empire was not having any of that good humanitarian nonsense.

Here is a short and sweet video show casing Muammar Gaddafi wonderful contribution to his people.

From sneakipedia

BTW the unhumanitarian intervention of Libya and the murdering of Muammar Gaddafi was my awakening!

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I spoke with a friend in Arizona about this as peridot occurs in NE Arizona, a volcanic/seismic region. Notable that Aldous Huxley wrote the introduction for “New Water for A Thirsty World” and the region with the periodot is close to the Zuni region upon which Huxley’s “savage” lands were based in Brave New World - a place where people don’t take Soma, people age, women breastfeed their young, dance ritual, etc - all too much for the medicated tourists. This friend says she has heard of it and also that AZ is thought to have one of the largest potential primary water reserves, which may explain why Gates has been buying up land outside Phoenix for a “smart” city. Why would he do that if he truly believed the climate/drought narrative. It isn’t consistent. He must know he will have access to alternative water sources.

https://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/news/2017/11/16/gates-of-sprawl-bill-gates-80m-arizona-bet-for.html

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@Gino

I hesitate to discuss my perception of Gaddafi (as a presumed humanitarian, contrasted with his potential globalist aims, albeit occulted) – and what really might have occurred with his purported murder (probably not a proper discussion for this forum).

That said, I suggest there is more likely much more below the surface (pun intended) amidst the story with the “fossil water” in Libya than was portrayed (in a glorified/propagandized manner) in the short video you linked. I think this aspect of the narrative is appropriate discussion for this forum, and should be explored.

But the combination of water and oil has given Libya a sound economic platform. Ideally placed as the “Gateway to Africa”, Libya is in a good position to play an increasingly influential role in the global economy.

Great Man-Made River Project - Grid map (BBC)

https://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Libya

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333321627_Determination_of_water_type_in_Benghazi_Plain_aquifers_by_chemical_and_statistical_methods

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330939424_Isotopes_in_Hydrology_and_Hydrogeology


My thoughts . . . I wonder if the proposed Interstate Water System (transcontinental aquifer) to potentially supply Lake Mead/Colorado with water (sourced from the Mississippi River) is modeled on this Nubian Aquifer (???). If so, there are many potential implications, as I think all of this (beta-tested) infrastructure is a sign of what is being planned on a global scale . . . Linking us back to LFTR/Thorium technology: Thorium Deposits in Brazil - Thor, More Norse Mythology - #4 by Stephers.

I think the repeated use of “fossils” (as in finding fossils) in the ongoing Lake Mead story is also signaling a connection between the primary water/fossil water and the upcoming push for LFTR: Molten Salt - Radio Isotopes - Crystalline Metamorphosis - #2 by Stephers.

My sense is that the AI/algorithm/remote sensor infrastructure (as it relates to hydrology/hydrogeology) had to be laid in place prior to any mass rollout of primary water implementation across the globe.

The repository is sealed to groundwater by clayey rock. Existing waters are inclusions originating from the time the ore deposit formed.

A wet place underground. The deep water originates from the time many million years ago when the geological layers depositedA wet place underground. The deep water originates from the time many million years ago when the geological layers depositedA wet place underground. The deep water originates from the time many million years ago when the geological layers deposited

The Konrad iron ore deposit formed about 150 million years ago; it developed from a primeval ocean. When the geological layers deposited, parts of this sea water were trapped. As the rock of the future Konrad repository is capable of taking up small volumes of water, part of this fossil water (formation water) is correspondingly enclosed in fine pores and clefts in the rock.

Emergence and volume

During the operation of the deposit, e.g. when cavities are driven underground, the rock is “injured” and releases the trapped solution. The “dewatering” of the rock occurs at swallow holes and wet places underground. Such places have only a limited contingency of formation water and therefore run dry entirely after some time.

In 2009 the inflow of brine amounted to altogether around 6,000 cubic metres. That corresponds to an amount of approx. 16 cubic metres per day. Half of it originated from the inflow to the mine. The remaining 3,000 cubic metres originated from a geological layer near the surface, the Hils sandstone about 400 metres deep, which is crossed by the shaft piping 2 located to the south of the mine area.

The water is continuously monitored and collected underground in water tanks and so-called pump swamps (collecting points the water is pumped from). The miners use part of the water to fight the dust and to maintain the roads underground. The rest is taken above ground.

On account of their high salt content the formation water forms stalactitesOn account of their high salt content the formation water forms stalactites.On account of their high salt content the formation water forms stalactites

No connection to the groundwater

In the area of the Konrad repository there are no direct natural connections between aquifers and the deeper lying geological layers where one intends to store low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste in future. Man-made connections resulting from earlier test drillings have been densely backfilled in the meantime. The two shaft pipes of the repository mine will be sealed as well after the operational time.

Significant difference compared with Asse

The area at the Konrad repository where low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste will be stored in future does thus have no contact with surface water. This is the key difference to the Asse mine, where water flows into the salt dome from the adjoining rock. This damages the salt formation continuously, causing the mine to collapse at some point in time unless it will be remediated. The 160 to 400-m-thick surface layer of clay seals large areas of the Konrad repository and prevents near-surface water from flowing into the mine. As the geological barrier is intact and there are no water routes, the inflow of near-surface groundwater can be ruled out.

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Yes, the water gets murky when UN organizations such as UNESCO and FAO are involved.
This agreement between Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan adds some more depth to the humanitarian intervention, or what ever lines beneath the surface of completely opposing stories told between main stream and alt sources. The sharing of this primary water source between these African countries was something that I was not aware of. A hugely important resource that many wars will be fought to maintain control. Same old!

Regarding the video I let my guard down. Whenever the word true, or truth is used in the title of anything it makes my spidey sense tingle. Wasn’t paying attention this time. I am sure there is some truth there, but yeah! Thanks Stephers. That said, I am curious now on your perspective and would welcome any information you may like to share regarding my good guy impression of Mr. Gadhafi. Please PM me.
The primary water can of worms is a fascinating topic indeed, leading one in many directions. Analyzing this rich information for another time!

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Dr. Pal Pauer’s mentor Stephan Riess

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I really like this Stephan Riess @Stephers. He is old and seems to be telling things as he knows them. He died in the year that this interview took place.

Beware of these psyops and anyone mingling with them who I think are trying to sabotage Stephan Riess’s findings. I do not think primary water fits in with the world builders future agenda. My gut feeling at this time.


Took this picture this morning. As you can see the water has a blue tinge to it and not typical green further down stream. @Stephers I am having a very difficult time finding good images online, or finding scientific papers coming out of acidemia. Just the two websites I have posted and you as well. I feel acidemia is trying to keep this one quiet.

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Speaking of sabotaging the primary water story, there may be some spin doctoring going on . . .

In a few minutes begins a relevant livestream via Alfa Vedic . . .

Stay tuned. I will report back on some sketchy connections I am seeing . . . Potentially, I am seeing that primary water may actually become a tool of the W0RLDBU1LDERS – so long as it is precisely controlled on the blockchain. This may be coming.

One link to begin to explore what I may be perceiving . . .

About Us

The years of holistic research by Russell Anderson and all his past experiences, has helped bring together a group of very highly talented visionaries. In 2008, Clear Water Vision, a non-profit corporation was created from these efforts.

Clear Water Vision has been giving presentations in various cities and counties in Northern California and has also attended the 2008 National Summit of Mining Communities in Montana.

News about our activities has also reached places like New Orleans, Florida, North Carolina, India and Russia.

CWV is developing a documentary to further explain to the public the research of great scientist such as Dr. Emoto who came to Clear Lake in 2006 to explain how important it’s water structure is.

Board Members

  • Russell Anderson : Founder and President
  • Sumadevi Vasudevan : Secretary
  • Giridhara Graeber : Treasurer

Advisory Board

  • Pal Pauer – (Hydrologist/Geologist)
  • Lyn Hebenstreit (President -Global Resource Alliance)
  • Ward Williams (Vice President – Dalar International Consulting)
  • Marianna King (Grant Writer)
  • Randy Hatton (Vibrant Water-Taos)

Additional pertinent links (worthy of intense scrutiny, given potential red flags; some links may be seemingly irrelevant) . . .

Tara Blasco

Tara is the GRA Director for programs related to tree planting, permaculture, alternative health, malaria prevention, education and orphans support. She has been involved with the organization since 2003 and has served on the Board of Directors since 2004.

She holds a Ph.D. in clinical psychology with a specialty in prenatal and birth psychology from Santa Barbara Graduate Institute.

A native of Spain, Tara has been working as a volunteer for different non-profit organizations since she was 14 years old. She also works as a counselor for families, is a craniosacral therapist and a director of the BEBA clinic, a center for family therapy in Santa Barbara and Ojai.

Presently, Tara lives in California with her husband Lyn Hebenstreit.

Lyn Hebenstreit

Lyn founded Global Resource Alliance in 2002 after volunteering for a small community service organization in the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania. With a background in accounting, he has trained and supervised the accounting staff in Tanzania and acted as Director of GRA’s rural water supply project until its termination in 2018.

Lyn has also taught meditation since the early 1970s.

Monica Marshall

Monica has volunteered for GRA since 2002, and has served on the GRA Board of Directors since 2005. Monica assists in fundraising, administration and supports Lyn and Tara in their roles as Directors of GRA’s many programs. She is the mother of two young children and works as a non profit bookkeeper.

Note involvement of Foster Gamble and Dr. Bruce Lipton (and Gerald H. Pollack)

(The curious “Inspired” channel is involved)

https://www.gra-usa.org/about-us

https://nowater-nolife.org

https://njhumanities.org/public-scholar/heather-fenyk-ph-d/

https://njhumanities.org/about/impact/

https://app.jogl.io

Lydia’s Story" is a film by Alex Zakrewsky, Heather Fenyk and filmmaker Nan Bress.

https://www.linkedin.com/in/nanbress

https://www.zoominfo.com/p/Nan-Bress/-2040291998

https://sonicrim.com/our-team

Uday Dandavate

Adjunct Professor

Contact

Bio

A design activist, poet, and ethnographer of social imagination, Uday Dandavate is also CEO of SonicRim Ltd., a San Francisco-based design research company specializing in co-creation. He has consulted for Fortune 100 companies such as Microsoft, Motorola, Google, AT&T, Whirlpool, Intel, Ford, Genentech, HP, Dell, Lenovo, BBCi, Honda, Samsung, and P&G translating leading-edge technologies into culturally, behaviorally, and socially relevant and meaningful experiences.

Uday has traveled extensively around the world, studying and connecting with all kinds of people and cultures, and watching and participating as they change over time.

In his professional capacity, as well as through blogging, teaching, speaking, and facilitating, Uday provokes fresh perspectives that help to humanize technologies and democratize design. Uday recently published an evocative collection of poems, ”a window for a home without walls," that help communicate values and sensitivities about life, imagination and design to the readers around the world. Uday is currently involved in projects involved in application of machine learning and autonomous technologies to the future of mobility. He is also involved in helping develop innovative services for the healthcare industry.

Areas of Expertise

  • Participatory design
  • Co-creation
  • Design activism

Integrated Innovation Courses

  • User Experience & Human-Computer Interaction

Education

  • Master of Science in User Research, The Ohio State University

  • Master’s Professional Certificate in Industrial Design, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, India

Pal Pauer emigrated from Hungary to the US in 1956 at the age of 15 to escape from Soviet occupation. He attended Ojai, CA highschool where he met Stephan Riess who was lecturing on the science of Primary Water. After graduating he went on to College in UC Santa Barbara to take courses in Geology while doing an apprenticeship with Stephan Riess who became his mentor/teacher/well drilling partner until his death in 1985. Besides working as a Hydro-Geologist Pal Pauer also became a master mason, successful builder and real estate investor throughout California.

A List of Pal Pauer’s major Primary Water drilling projects showing date, location, depth & structure, gallons per minute water output:

1961 Riess Property, Sulphur Mountain, Ventura Cty: 1 well; 400’, Monterey Shale,
50 gpm

1962, California City, Mohave Desert: 4 wells, 700’ to 1400’ bedrock, av. 700gpm

1962 Sulphur Mountain, 2 additional in Ventura Cty; both at 350’, Monterey shale;
50 & 25 gpm

1965 Cuyama Valley, Kern Cty, CA, 500’, meta sedimentary,150gpm (redrilled 1972 after earthquake, San Fernando 1971; 5 miles from San Andreas fault)

1966 Three Rivers, Tulare Cty.; 200’, plutonic granite, 200 gpm

1970-1975 Santa Ana Canyon, Ventura Cty; 5 wells: largest 150 feet/700gpm, sespe sandstone & coldwater, horizontal to 17 feet, 10gpm; 110’/50gpm; 200’/30gpm; 200’/50gpm

1975-1978 & 1984-1987 Coyote Canyon, Ventura Cty. west of Lake Casitas,
2 wells & artisan well: sespe sandstone & coldwater structure: 150’/800gpm; 200’/75

1978 Sulphur Mountain, Ojai, Ventura Cty, 400’, Monterey shale, 75gpm

1978-83 Pacific City, Tilamook Cty, OR, elected to District Sewer & Water
District, 3 wells: Cape Kiwanda for sewer diet: each 120’ kiwanda alluvium
structure/ 1200gpm!!

1980 Cloverdale, Tilamook Cty, OR, 175’ meta sedimentary, 50gpm

1987 Siskiyou Cty, CA, Klamath River Northern Ranch, 400 acres, 175’ in unsorted volcanics, 200gpm

1995 Yreka, California, Hawkinsville/Humbug District, Siskiyou Cty,
Pauer property, volcanics, 200’ /400gpm;
2nd well: 150’deep/75gpm
3rd well: 150’deep/50gpm
4th well: 200’deep/25gpm
5th (1965) 250’deep/50 gpm
6th 250’deep/20gpm
7th 250’deep/25gpm

From 1995 on until to date Pal Pauer has supervised and is involved in Primary Water drilling projects in:
Tanzania
Kenya
Morocco
Hungaria
Mexico
Philipines
Marshal Islands
U.S.A.

http://www.primarywaterinstitute.org/images/pdfs/PWI_poster_rev7-29-18.pdf

At an age of 2.5 million years, it is the oldest lake in North America.[[3]](Clear Lake (California) - Wikipedia) It is the latest lake to occupy a site with a history of lakes stretching back at least 2,500,000 years.[4]

Placing this information here again . . . I perceive the goal is to begin to trickle out information on primary water (mostly accurate), now that they have the capability to be super precise with respect to harvesting and distributing this water (with remote sensing/blockchain technologies). It seems the crypto bros may be jumping on this bandwagon. That said, it seems likely the World Bank already has a stronghold on this resource (see below).

https://outofthisworld1150.com/guests/mark-burr/

Mark Burr

A wonderful Water Conference will be held October 18th to 21st, 2018 in Sofia, Bulgaria.

Mark Burr has his own water company that promotes clean water worldwide; he will be talking about the upcoming Water Conference in Bulgaria. Mark has a wide range of international experience – he was born in Guatemala when his father was an international development manager; between stints in California, Oregon and Virginia he also lived in Colombia, Egypt and the Philippines before returning to Washington, D.C., where his father ultimately retired from the U.S. Department of State.

After serving four years in the U.S. Marine Corps, Mark graduated with a B.A. in Middle East Studies from the University of Utah in 1989 and was awarded Phi Beta Kappa. Following employment at the World Bank Group he attended the American Graduate School of International Management – Thunderbird and received his Master of International Management in January of 1993 after coordinating a one-month seminar in Kuwait on post-war reconstruction.

Mark then worked for over a decade in export management and international sales, developing markets in the Middle East/Africa and Latin America/Caribbean for a broad range of US manufacturers, including seven years with Steelcase, Inc.– three as Country Manager in Saudi Arabia and four in Latin America and the Caribbean. In July 2004 Mark was invited to work as Senior Advisor to the Iraqi Ministry of Industry & Minerals at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, serving as a State Department diplomat until June 2006. Upon leaving Iraq he launched his consulting firm and has been engaged by Grant Thornton in Iraq, by PIPC (UK) in Saudi Arabia, and by a number of manufacturing and service companies to develop markets in the Middle East.

In 2011, Mark was a founding associate of J. Streicher Advisory, a sister company of the NYSE specialist firm J. Streicher & Co., through which he drives business development and advisory services in Washington, D.C. Mark then launched J. Streicher Ventures, now Primary Water Technologies LLC, together with J. Streicher CEO Tom Brown with the mission to be the first global water exploration and production (Water E&P) venture using a programmatic approach to explore for and produce earth generated Primary Water using advanced remote sensing, geophysical data analytics, pinpoint locating and precision drilling. Initial projects were undertaken at the Riess Institute’s Totten Field in South Hamilton, MA; in Kurdistan, Iraq; Shobak, Jordan; and near the Salton Sea in California.

October 12, 2018 (15 minutes in; 15 minute interview)

Audio Player


Guessing the Mormons are already in deep (pun intended) . . .

https://www.bookofmormonevidence.org/streaming/videos/science-religion/mark-burr-mike-jessop-groundwater-exploration-in-southern-utah/

Stephan Riess became the mentor/teacher/well drilling partner of Hydro-Geologist Pal Pauer , the founder of the Primary Water Institute. Pal Pauer collaborates with Mark Burr from Primary Water Technologies who is our cooperation partner in the United States.

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This was sort of an odd plot element in the first epidsode of Severance where they go to a “dinner” party, but only water is served. @Stephers

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