“A New State of Water Reveals a Hidden Ocean in Earth’s Mantle”
Until recently, the idea that water came to Earth from somewhere else in the solar system seemed to have more support, but studies conducted by the European Space Agency on the Rosetta missions showed that water almost certainly didn’t come from comets. Wendy Panero, associate professor of earth sciences at Ohio State, and doctoral student Jeff Pigott believe that when the Earth formed, it had huge bodies of water in its interior, and has been continuously supplying water to the surface via plate tectonics, circulating material upward from the mantle.
The thing is, when we’re talking about water in the mantle, it’s not actually liquid water – what seems dry to the human eye may actually have significant quantities of water – in the form of hydrogen and oxygen waters. Hydrogen is typically stored in crystal voids and defects, while oxygen is usually plentiful in most minerals. Certain reactions can free up the hydrogen and oxygen, resulting in water; but could it be enough water to amount for the oceans we see today?
The key element here is ringwoodite.
Olivine is a magnesium-iron silicate typically found in the mantle and igneous rocks. However, in the mantle, at very high pressures and temperatures, the olivine structure is no longer stable. Below depths of about 410 km (250 mi) olivine undergoes a transformation, transforming into ringwoodite or bridgmanite. Ringwoodite is notable for being able to contain hydroxide ions (oxygen and hydrogen atoms bound together) and previous research has already shown that the earth’s mantle holds huge quantities of water.
Transparent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot, the French word for olivine. It is also called chrysolite, from the Greek words for gold and stone. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad island in the Red Sea.
Olivine/peridot occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks. Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma that is rich in magnesium and low in silica. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as gabbro and basalt. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite, and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas, and typically they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth’s upper mantle, and olivine is one of the Earth’s most common minerals by volume. The metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content also produces Mg-rich olivine, or forsterite.
Oceans cover 71% of the Earth’s surface. They play an important role in the water cycle that circulates water through the atmosphere. But did you know that there’s also a deep water cycle? It describes how tectonic plates water carry water into the Earth’s mantle. There, it’s absorbed by a mineral called ringwoodite . Later, the water escapes the ringwoodite and travels back to the surface inside magma .
Until recently, scientists had never seen ringwoodite from inside the Earth. To study the mineral, they had to synthesize it in a lab or extract it from meteorites. In 2014, a tiny sample of the mineral was extracted from the Earth for the first time. A grain was found inside a diamond mined in Brazil. The tiny fragment was less than 40 micrometres long.
Wadsleyite is an orthorhombic mineral with the formula β-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4. It was first found in nature in the Peace River meteorite from Alberta, Canada. It is formed by a phase transformation from olivine (α-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4) under increasing pressure and eventually transforms into spinel-structured ringwoodite (γ-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4) as pressure increases further. The structure can take up a limited amount of other bivalent cations instead of magnesium, but contrary to the α and γ structures, a β structure w…
In values of weight percent oxide, the pure magnesian variety of wadsleyite would be 42.7% SiO2 and 57.3% MgO by mass. An analysis of trace elements within wadsleyite shows a large number of elements: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). This suggests that the concentrations of these elements could be larger than what has been supposed in the transition zone of Earth’s upper mantle. Moreover, these results help in understanding chemical differentiation and magmatism inside the Earth.
Mr. Burr was born in Guatemala when his father was an international development manager; between stints in California, Oregon and Virginia he also lived in Colombia, Egypt and the Philippines before returning to Washington, D.C., where his father ultimately retired from the U.S. Department of State. After serving four years in the U.S. Marine Corps, Mark graduated with a B.A. in Middle East Studies from the University of Utah in 1989 and was awarded Phi Beta Kappa. Following employment at the World Bank Group he attended the American Graduate School of International Management - Thunderbird and received his Master of International Management in January of 1993 after coordinating a one-month seminar in Kuwait on post-war reconstruction. Mark then worked for over a decade in export management and international sales, developing markets in the Middle East/Africa and Latin America/Caribbean for a broad range of US manufacturers, including seven years with Steelcase, Inc.-- three as Country Manager in Saudi Arabia and four in Latin America and the Caribbean.
In July 2004 Mark was invited to work as Senior Advisor to the Iraqi Ministry of Industry & Minerals at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, serving as a State Department diplomat until June 2006. Upon leaving Iraq he launched his consulting firm and has been engaged by Grant Thornton in Iraq, by PIPC (UK) in Saudi Arabia, and by a number of manufacturing and service companies to develop markets in the Middle East. In 2011, Mark was a founding associate of J. Streicher Advisory, a sister company of the NYSE specialist firm J. Streicher & Co., through which he drives business development and advisory services in Washington, D.C. Mark then launched J. Streicher Ventures, now Primary Water Technologies LLC, together with J. Streicher CEO Tom Brown with the mission to be the first global water exploration and production (Water E&P) venture using a programmatic approach to explore for and produce earth-generated Primary Water using advanced remote sensing, geophysical data analytics, pinpoint locating and precision drilling. Initial projects were undertaken at the Riess Institute’s Totten Field in South Hamilton, MA; in Kurdistan, Iraq; Shobak, Jordan; and near the Salton Sea in California. (my emphasis)
If we are beginning to form an organization and a group of us men getting together to index our work, our petrographic, our crystallographic, our geological structural conditions, I am sure that it will be only a short while from now to train men and go out and determine the location and produce water wherever we wish. There is no limit, state or country. ~ Stephan Riess, 1953
The theory of earth-generated water was primarily developed by a German scientist, Stephan Riess, who created the term “primary water”. He discovered many hundreds of wells in the US and globally in the second half of the 20th century by locating drilling points and drilling bore holes in base rock formations. He did what he announced to do in an interview in 1953 and was extremely successful.
Stephan Riess and Dr. Armin Bickel knew each other and worked together on some projects.
Stephan Riess became the mentor/teacher/well drilling partner of Hydro-Geologist Pal Pauer, the founder of the Primary Water Institute. Pal Pauer collaborates with Mark Burr from Primary Water Technologies who is our cooperation partner in the United States. (my emphasis)
While rarely acknowledged, though referenced in the Bible and other ancient texts, the Earth’s magma and geology is in fact the source of our planet’s most pure water. This water appears in unexpected places such as mountain springs and desert oases. Have you ever wondered how a spring could defy gravity and surface at high elevations on the top of a mountain, or provide a green oasis in the middle of a desert? Primary Water isn’t a mystery, though access to this technology has been largely suppressed historically and only recently begun to emerge in open discussions within scientific communities.
Along with its abundance, the advantages and value of Primary Water include that it is clean water which has never been in contact with the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier, access is largely dependent on geography and geology rather than climate and atmospheric rainfall. It is readily available in drought as well as normal rainfall years. It can also be localized to certain areas and needs – and, under the right geologic conditions, is plentiful and readily accessible.
All water originates as Primary Water deep in the mantle of the Earth. Under pressure, it then makes its way to the surface via faults and fissures in the form of volcanic steam, artesian springs, geysers, and oases. The defining characteristic of Primary Water is that it has never before been on the surface of the Earth and is therefore free of surface pollutants. When it approaches the Earth’s surface, Primary Water mixes with water already here and then becomes part of the Hydrologic Cycle. Skilled Primary Water experts are able to locate the water as it nears the earth’s surface, thus reducing the depth of drilling normally required for water wells.
This magazine offers a snapshot of some of the 20th and 21st Century pioneers of Primary Water research as well as an overview of numerous success stories where Primary Water has come to the rescue - especially in drought years.
Thousands of Primary Water wells already provide fresh water in Australia, the United States, and Africa. Many villages in Africa have experienced tremendous improvements in their quality of life due to Primary Water wells. Primary Water is a valuable source of water that could also help refill reservoirs, resupply over-tapped rivers such as the Colorado River, and support agricultural needs.
Could Primary Water solve our global water crisis? And, might Primary Water offer hope for mankind – and the future survival of Planet Earth? A resounding yes on both accounts! Primary Water may well be a missing link to solving water shortages and hunger around the world. (my emphasis)
I: Do we have enough potable water for our world?
P: In fact we have more water today than we’ve ever had in the history of the planet. The point is that we don’t always have the water in the places we would like to have it if we rely only on the secondary water cycle, which is totally reliant on that which evaporates. The planet itself has enough potable water within it, which could see us through these weather cycles, which we have for many unknown reasons. We have a back up system, which is this planet.
I intend to link back to this in the near future – leaving now as a placeholder:
Esoterically speaking (RE: Transmedia Storytelling) – think archetypes/templates/subliminal imprinting . . .
When watching Godzilla vs. Kong last night, I saw an image (sorry for the very amateur screenshot - see above) that seemed to very closely resemble Wadsleyite and/or Ringwoodite. See Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite (below) to compare: