Ok I know @Stephers has been doing some investigations into Norse mythology. Not sure how I could have missed that the mineral was named for THOR. Duh. In my latest post I mention the largest deposits are in India, Brazil, Australia, and the US.
Look @leo and @Stephers - sky, rain, agriculture, fertility, and ICELAND
In addition to his role as a model warrior and defender of the order of society and its ambitions, Thor also played a large role in the promotion of agriculture and fertility (something which has already been suggested by his blessing of the lands in which the first Icelanders settled). This was another extension of his role as a sky god, and one particularly associated with the rain that enables crops to grow. As the eleventh-century German historian Adam of Bremen notes, “Thor, they say, presides over the air, which governs the thunder and lightning, the winds and rains, fair weather and crops.”
This is a really interesting slideshare on the history of Thorium extraction in Brazil. @jenlake
@AMcD This also ties into my interrogation of Wadsleyite, in the context of primary water/transition zone water and its potential application to weather engineering:
In values of weight percent oxide, the pure magnesian variety of wadsleyite would be 42.7% SiO2 and 57.3% MgO by mass. An analysis of trace elements within wadsleyite shows a large number of elements: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). This suggests that the concentrations of these elements could be larger than what has been supposed in the transition zone of Earth’s upper mantle. Moreover, these results help in understanding chemical differentiation and magmatism inside the Earth.
@AMcDThorium also links directly to my research into the Lake Mead narrative:
The other source of pumped hydro-power storage is virtual. There will be more than 230 100 MW LFTR (Liquid Fluoride salt Thorium Rector [sic]) power stations strategically stationed along the waterway providing pumping of water for 19 hours and providing virtual hydro-power output.
Molten-salt-fueled reactors (MSRs) supply the nuclear fuel mixed into a molten salt. They should not be confused with designs that use a molten salt for cooling only (fluoride high-temperature reactors, FHRs) and still have a solid fuel. Molten salt reactors, as a class, include both burners and breeders in fast or thermal spectra, using fluoride or chloride salt-based fuels and a range of fissile or fertile consumables. LFTRs are defined by the use of fluoride fuel salts and the breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal neutron spectrum.
The LFTR concept was first investigated at the Oak Ridge National LaboratoryMolten-Salt Reactor Experiment in the 1960s, though the MSRE did not use thorium. The LFTR has recently been the subject of a renewed interest worldwide. Japan, China, the UK and private US, Czech, Canadian and Australian companies have expressed the intent to develop, and commercialize the technology.
LFTRs differ from other power reactors in almost every aspect: they use thorium that is turned into uranium, instead of using uranium directly; they are refueled by pumping without shutdown. Their liquid salt coolant allows higher operating temperature and much lower pressure in the primary cooling loop. These distinctive characteristics give rise to many potential advantages, as well as design challenges.
The IWS would evolve over years, as did the Interstate Highway System. We should start building it now.
Joseph D. Schulman, M.D., a scientist, former professor, and Chairman of Genetics & IVF Institute, lives in the American East and West. John P. Schaefer, Ph.D. is a chemist, former President of the University of Arizona, and Chairman of REhnu, Inc. Henry I. Miller is a physician, molecular biologist, and Senior Fellow at the Pacific Research Institute.
So, why would the Chairman of Genetics and IVF Institute be so invested in an interstate water system (IWS) based on liquid fluoride thorium/molten salt?!
He is recognized as a pioneer and authority in the fields of fetal medicine, prenatal genetics, and IVF.
In 1974, Schulman joined the staff of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development where he headed the Section on Human Biochemical Genetics. He founded and was first Director of the Interinstitute Program in Medical Genetics, remaining at the National Institutes of Health until 1983. During this period, the major research contributions of Schulman and his associates were in the field of the inborn errors of metabolism, especially diseases of sulfur metabolism. They demonstrated that cystinosis is a [lysosomal storage disease](Lysosomal storage disease - Wikipedia) caused by hereditary absence of the transmembrane lysosomal carrier for [cystine](Cystine - Wikipedia), and proved that the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was not, contrary to current theory, required for normal transcellular amino acid transport.Schulman and David Cogan of the National Eye Institute were also the first to utilize cysteamine eyedrops for treatment of the painful photophobia and ocular crystals characteristic of cystinosis, and this treatment is widely utilized today. The prevention of abnormal genital masculinization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia by prenatal administration of dexamethasone to the mother, first proposed and utilized by Schulman and his colleagues at NIH, has also become a widely accepted therapy.
*In 1984, Schulman founded the Genetics & IVF Institute, which has pioneered the development and early introduction of numerous innovative diagnoses and treatments in human genetics and infertility, and is now an international company in these fields. The Institute was the first in the United States to introduce transvaginal non-surgical IVF (replacing laparoscopy and now the standard method worldwide), and also to report pregnancies using ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) for the *treatment of severe male infertilit**y. The Institute also was one of the first centers in the world to introduce chorionic villus sampling (CVS) as an earlier alternative to amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis, the first to offer clinical testing for certain common mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, considered to be responsible for a significant fraction of hereditary [breast cancers](Breast cancer - Wikipedia), and the first to offer prenatal testing for [cystic fibrosis](Cystic fibrosis - Wikipedia). Schulman and associates also developed the world’s first system for the use of non-disclosing preimplantation genetic testing for the prevention of [Huntington disease](Huntington's disease - Wikipedia).More recently, Schulman and his colleagues have established that flow-cytometric sorting (MicroSort) of living human sperm can modify the proportion of viable X-bearing and Y-bearing sperm and that such technology can increase the proportion of girls or boys born after insemination with sorted sperm.This innovation was notable for improving the ability to choose the sex of a child conceived by the above-cited methods. Decades after its introduction, fetal genetic testing is increasingly used, despite some initial hesitancy to adopt it. The Institute, under Schulman’s direction, was responsible for starting the first modern genetics/infertility treatment center in Shanghai, China, one of the largest IVF programs in the world. (my emphasis)
The Netherlands is one of very few countries in the world that operate a high power materials test reactor. This High Flux Reactor (HFR) has a facility that offers a unique opportunity: a test platform right next to the reactor core. Dutch researchers have developed a plan to place what would one could call a ‘miniature-reactor’ on that platform, which allows nuclear fuel salts to flow within a radiation field. This will create conditions equal to those in a molten salt reactor. By attaching plenty of measurement equipment to this ‘LUMOS’ facility, researchers will quickly acquire deep insight in the processes and the behavior of all materials involved.
This may turn out to be the only way to provide regulators with sufficient proof that molten salt reactors will be safe and future-proof energy systems. The Netherlands may have a unique opportunity, and thus may have a unique responsibility in a world that desperately needs a pathway to clean, safe, affordable and CO2-free energy.
The team that is working on molten salt reactors is convinced the DIMOS route will prove to be the fasted route to a responsible energy system that will meet future demands. It is no coincidence that this is also the chosen route for the development of the Molten Chloride Fast Reactor of Terrapower, the nuclear company of Bill Gates – although Terrapower’s loop test does not include neutronics. Also, Terrapower at this time does not seem to pursue the thorium cycle – meaning that DIMOS at present seems the only initiative that proposes a feasible route to a molten salt reactor that is able to start the thorium cycle. Starting the thorium cycle is one of the ultimate goals of the DIMOS plan. The fact that the HFR test-reactor and the Pool Side Facility are already available, means a substantial reduction of the time that is required for development and a substantial cost saving.
At the heart of the DIMOS initiative is the design and construction of what could be called a miniature molten salt reactor, named LUMOS (Learning to Use MOlten Salt). In its essence, LUMOS is a loop-shaped tube, in which a nuclear fuel salt circulates within a radiation field. The construction will be build and tested in a non-nuclear environment first. Once LUMOS has successfully completed all tests, it will be placed on the HFR’s unique ‘Pool Side Facility’, a test platform in the radiation field right next to the reactor core of the High Flux Reactor. (my emphasis)
@AMcD I added some information to my comment above that is very important. The LFTR technology is continually paired with language about “pools” - as in, “Pool Side Facility” and “Global Nuclear Pools.” This is crucial to know as the narrative surrounding the draining of Lake Mead is literally littered with “dead pool” imprinting. It is occulted language.
Superficial/cover story for use of “Dead Pool” messaging:
If the next three years are as bad as the past two years, marking a rerun of the early 2000s, “both reservoirs will be at dead pool,” said Brad Udall, a Colorado State University water researcher, last week.
Consider this information from above ~ Joseph D. Schulman, M.D., a scientist, former professor, and Chairman of Genetics & IVF Institute ~ in light of the Mormon Udalls.
The Thorium Molten Salt Charter would not be a top-secret nor geopolitically important document since inherent properties of fuel and reactors make the system highly unattractive to terrorists and rogue states.
Partners, customers and governments taking the oath of signing the Charter would be welcome to share burden of development and later to access the technology.
# Thor Energy’s fuel designs are compatible with 90 % of all existing reactors
## 436 reactors (375 000 MWe in total) are in operation world wide. 90 % of these are light water reactors. Most new-builds are Light Water Reactors – these can use Th.Add and Th.Mox*.***
Pardon any repetition, if present @Stephers
The origin of thorium reactors is typically credited to Alvin Radkowsky and his work with Adm. Hyman Rickover:
[obit, edited]“ALVIN RADKOWSKY, professor of nuclear engineering at Tel Aviv University and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, both in Israel, died of pneumonia on February 17, 2002. Before retiring to Israel, Dr. Radkowsky had been chief scientist of the U.S. Navy Nuclear Propulsion Program for more than 20 years… Alvin attended City College of New York (CCNY) and, at age 20, received a B.S.E. in electrical engineering. His first job was as a troubleshooter for the Singer Sewing Machine Company… While employed there, he continued his education and received an M.A. in physics from George Washington University in Washington, D.C., where his thesis advisor was Edward Teller, perhaps an indication of things to come…
“Admiral, then Captain, Rickover started organizing his working group for the possibility of creating a navy based on nuclear propulsion sometime in 1947. He recruited Alvin to be his physicist and arranged for him to go to the Argonne National Laboratory in 1948 to attain proficiency in reactor physics… Alvin became then the chief scientist of the program. When Adm. Rickover’s section became Naval Reactors in 1954, both as part of the Navy Department and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Alvin became a joint civilian employee of both the Navy and AEC. Alvin was responsible for originating and assisting in the development of two reactor concepts… One concept was “burnable poison,”… important to all nuclear power plants, but it is especially important for navy vessels, because it enables them to operate for years without refueling…[and the] other concept was the “seed blanket” reactor structure, which consists of a highly enriched fuel seed surrounded by a blanket of natural uranium.
…”Alvin had a longstanding interest in the use of thorium in nuclear reactors. He published a number of papers on this subject and owned several patents in the field, which he assigned to the company he helped found, Thorium Power, which is now publicly traded. The thorium fuel technology is designed to stop the reactors from producing weapons-suitable plutonium and reduce the toxicity and volume of spent fuel. The thorium fuel can also be used to dispose of existing stockpiles of plutonium while generating electricity. Alvin worked with Thorium Power to establish a program at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, Russia. That program continues and is testing the thorium fuel for use in commercial reactors…” NAE Website - ALVIN RADKOWSKY 1915–2002
Feasibility Study of 1/3 Thorium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide Core
Thorium-plutonium mixed oxide (Th-MOX) fuel has become one of the most promising solutions to reduce a large and increasing plutonium stockpile. Compared with traditional uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (U-MOX) fuels, Th-MOX fuel has higher consumption rate of plutonium in LWRs. Besides, thorium based fuels have improved thermomechanical material properties compared with traditional U-MOX fuels…
October 2008: “The newly released NRPA report…concludes that the environmental consequences of using thorium-based nuclear power will result in the same problems the world faces today with uranium bases reactors. ‘The NRPA invalidated that thorium is kind nuclear power, as many have earlier asserted,’ said Nils Bøhmer, Bellona’s daily manager and nuclear physicist. ‘Using thorium leads to highly radioactive nuclear waste and the risk of accidents will always be present.’ According to the NRPA, thorium-based nuclear energy, uncontrolled chain reactions and, in the worst case, meltdowns can occur. The NRPA also asserts that thorium-based nuclear energy will produce long-lasting radioactive waste that will demand the same handling as highly radioactive waste from current nuclear reactors. ‘This is a confirmation of what we have said the whole time’ said Bøhmer.”
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory 1959 thorium-uranium molten-salt reactor (SRE) accident is among the most infamous of accident cover-ups.
“The purpose of the Sodium Reactor Experiment [SRE] was to demonstrate the feasibility of a sodium-cooled reactor as the heat source for a commercial power reactor to produce electricity. A secondary objective was to obtain operational data on slightly enriched fuel and uranium-thorium fuel mixtures. The reactor was designed as a flexible development facility, and was considered a development tool emphasizing the investigation of fuel materials… At the end of run 13, it was obvious that something had occurred which impaired the heat-transfer characteristics of the system… In July 1959, the reactor experienced a partial meltdown when 13 of the reactor’s 43 fuel elements partially melted… ” Sodium Reactor Experiment - Wikipedia ; This reference document reviews the SRE malfunction and meltdown, listing the fuel only as uranium on page II-A-6 https://web.archive.org/web/20130217033916/http://www.etec.energy.gov/Library/Main/NAA-SR-4488-Interim.pdf
And then, in 2018, a wildfire started adjacent to the site, called the Woolsey Fire:
“The Woolsey Fire was a wildfire that burned in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties of the U.S. state of California. The fire ignited on November 8, 2018, and burned 96,949 acres (39,234 hectares) of land. The fire destroyed 1,643 structures, killed three people, and prompted the evacuation of more than 295,000 people. It was one of several fires in California that ignited on the same day. While the nearby Hill Fire was contained with minimal damage on November 16, the Camp Fire in Northern California destroyed most of the town of Paradise, killing 85 people…” Woolsey Fire - Wikipedia
“Less than 30 miles from Malibu, the nearly 3,000-acre site had been used since the late ’40s for the development of rocket engines. In the ’50s, Atomics International began to use the SSFL for the development of nuclear reactors. Professor Dan Hirsch knew more about the SSFL than anyone in the world. In 1979, Hirsch and his UCLA students discovered evidence of the 1959 meltdown, which experts estimate released hundreds of times more radionuclides than the meltdown at Three Mile Island. Thirteen of the SSFL nuclear plant’s 43 fuel rods experienced melting. The reactor didn’t have a containment dome and wasn’t shut down until 13 days after the first signs of trouble. Radioactive materials were intentionally vented into the atmosphere to prevent the reactor from exploding, releasing nuclear radiation into the skies above Los Angeles. In addition to the partial meltdown in 1959, there were three smaller accidents at other reactors at the site… Hirsch has called the SSFL “the most contaminated site in the United States” and has described a witch’s brew of more than 100 different toxins, including PCBs, mercury, tritium, and perchlorate as well as cesium-137, strontium-90, and plutonium-239…
A $41 million Environmental Protection Agency study in 2012 showed astronomical levels of radiation in the area. The presence of strontium-90 tested 284 times higher than normal; cesium-137, 9,328 times higher; plutonium-239, 92 times higher—24 feet below the soil surface. The U.S. Department of Energy had committed in 2010 to clean up the site by 2017; Boeing, which took over the site in 1996, signed a similar order in 2007. Yet, as of November 2018, the cleanup had yet to commence.
At 2:22 p.m. on November 8, 2018, Southern California Edison reported a circuit outage on the SSFL site. Two minutes later flames were seen in Woolsey Canyon near that location. Stu Mundel, a reporter for KCAL 9, was overhead in a helicopter and took a picture just after the fire broke out. But because Boeing had dismantled much of the complex’s fire-suppression system, it was impossible to fight fires, even small ones, at the site… Using Google Earth images, Hirsch estimated that the fire started less than 1,000 feet from the site of the ’59 meltdown, which means that toxic radioactive materials in the soil and in the burned vegetation were blown by the winds and landed elsewhere… By one estimate, the fire released more than 40,000 tons of ash loaded with radiation and chemicals.
…Ten hours after the fire started, authorities claimed no danger to the public existed despite the fact that they hadn’t had time to run tests, let alone obtain the results. Indeed, approximately two months before the fire, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control was supposed to have released a “decision document,” which would have delineated its cleanup plan for the site. Now those toxins were being driven by winds and a fire burning contaminated vegetation and brush all the way to the beach.
…When I asked Malibu City Manager Reva Feldman whether the city had tested for radioactive materials, she told me everyone she’d heard from—the EPA, the Air Quality Management District—said there was no reason for concern. I reached out to Greg Ramirez, city manager of Agoura Hills, another city downwind of the site. He also had done no testing, explaining that the L.A. Fire Department and California Department of Forestry & Fire Protection had told him there was nothing to worry about.
…After the Woolsey fire, Gundersen and his volunteers collected random samples from around the SSFL…[The] samples that Fairewinds has collected have shown elevated levels of radioactive materials, including radium-227, uranium, and thorium… It will be months before the complete results are known, but, even then, the effects on the population can take years, often a decade or more, to manifest themselves.
Ok, so this is getting clearer. The nuclear sub program was probably always about refining portable nuclear units then. Fascinating. What a long time horizon they have. @leo didn’t you have something on an early nuclear sub guy with ties to Oak Ridge - same guy here?
Effect of graphite and graphene oxide on thorium carbide microstructural and thermal properties
Since its appearance in clinical research literature in the late 1990’s, Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) has been considered an extremely promising approach to treat cancer1. The benefits of using alpha-emitting radioisotopes to selectively induce localized damage to cancer cells come from peculiar properties of alpha particles with respect to beta radiation. Due to their much larger mass, alpha particles result in a higher linear energy transfer, i.e., they deposit higher amounts of energy over shorter ranges.
Among the potentially employable alpha-emitting radioisotope for this purpose, 225Ac has recently attracted much interest due to the combination of a suitable 10-day half-life, the emission of four alpha particles in its decay chain and the generation of 213Bi, another isotope considered for TAT applications2. The development of 225Ac-based radiopharmaceuticals presents several challenges, mostly linked to the availability of sources and/or production techniques of this particular isotope and to the purity of the obtained products. At present, 225Ac for clinical research is primarily produced from the decay of 229Th stocks located in the USA, Russia and Germany, in turn obtained from stockpiles of 233U3. Other explored approaches are the use of 226Ra targets bombarded by protons or neutrons4 and the direct irradiation of 232Th with high-energy protons5. None of these techniques is free from the necessity of developing several stages of chemical purification to eliminate co-produced and undesired isotopes of actinium and other elements.
With the aim of developing new and more efficient production methods, ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) facilities are being considered as sources to get high purity 225Ac for research purposes2. In the framework of such existing or future facilities, traditionally devoted to the production of radioactive ion beams for nuclear physics, several research programs on medical isotopes production are now ongoing. Examples include MEDICIS at CERN6, ISAC at TRIUMF7, ISOLPHARM at INFN8 and ISOL@MYRRHA at SKC-CEN9. The presence of a mass separation stage in these infrastructures ensures high purity, due to the absence of same-element contaminants, which cannot be removed with chemical separation methods.
The research reported here is aimed at the development of a nanostructured thorium carbide-based target for 225Ac production with the ISOL method. Historically, thorium carbide targets have played a rather marginal role in ISOL facilities10,11 compared to the commonly used uranium carbide ones, due to lower yields of radionuclides relevant for nuclear physics and more difficult synthesis and handling. The need for optimized targets at the nanoscale level has lately arisen in the ISOL target community; stable porous nanostructures with high specific surface area (SSA) have been associated with increased performance consistency during irradiation, guaranteeing high yields to experimental users12,13.
RE: The problem ~ Lake Mead draining (“dying”); the solution ~ IWS/transcontinental aqueduct (applying thorium as LFTR nuclear technology) – Which came first (the problem or the solution)???
I would like to return to the authors of the following article I had posted above, as I only focused on one – Joseph D. Schulman. I would like to explore Schulman’s co-author, Henry I. Miller – a physician, molecular biologist, and Senior Fellow at thePacific Research Institute . . .
Henry I. Miller, MS, MD, is a Senior Fellow at the Pacific Research Institute in San Francisco. His research focuses on public policy toward science, technology, and medicine, encompassing a number of areas, including pharmaceutical development, precision medicine, genetic engineering, advances in agriculture, the emergence of new viral diseases, and models for regulatory reform.
Dr. Miller served for fifteen years at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in a number of posts. He was the medical reviewer for the first genetically engineered drugs to be evaluated by the FDA and thus instrumental in the rapid licensing of human insulin and human growth hormone. Thereafter, he was a special assistant to the FDA commissioner and the founding director of the FDA’s Office of Biotechnology. As a government official, Dr. Miller received numerous awards and citations.
*During more than two decades as the Robert Wesson Fellow in Scientific Philosophy & Public Policy at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, Dr. Miller became well known for both his contributions to scholarly journals and for articles and books that make science, medicine, and technology accessible. His work has been widely published in many languages. Monographs include Policy Controversy in Biotechnology: An Insider’s View; To America’s Health: A Model for Reform of the Food and Drug Administration; and The Frankenfood Myth: How Protest and Politics Threaten the Biotech Revolution. Barron’s selected The Frankenfood Myth as one of the 25 Best Books of 2004. In addition, Dr. Miller has published extensively in a wide spectrum of scholarly journals and popular publications worldwide, including The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Science, the Nature family of journals, Chronicle of Higher Education, Forbes, National Review, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, the *Guardian,and the Financial Times. He appears regularly on the nationally syndicated radio programs of John Batchelor and Lars Larson.
Dr. Miller was the first recipient of an award named after him from the American Council on Science and Health and was selected by the editors of Nature Biotechnology as one of the people who had made the “most significant contributions” to biotechnology during the previous decade. He serves on several editorial boards. (my emphasis)
For someone so focused and pivotal in genetic engineering and biotechnology (and incredibly supportive of GMOs), why is Miller so front-and-center with this potential transcontinental nuclear/water pipeline?
Her comments are regularly included in national and international media stories covering health care topics, and have been featured in the Chicago Tribune , the Guardian , Kaiser Health News , Healthcare Dive , Healthline, the New York Times Sunday Magazine , Las Vegas Review-Journal , Shape magazine, Politico , and the Sacramento Bee – among others. (my emphasis)
He is also an adjunct scholar at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a member of the scientific advisory board of the George C. Marshall Institute and a director of the American Council on Science and Health.
To get a sense of Miller’s spin doctoring:
THE EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO RISKS: INEVITABLE BUT NOT UNMANAGEABLE
Henry I. Miller
People are afraid of technology, no question about it. Some apprehension about new gadgets or products is just fear of the unknown that can easily be overcome with a little experience. But the “emotional dimension” of concerns about technology’s potential risk and threats to public health or the environment is less readily addressed and can have a profound impact on consumers’ acceptance of new technology. The new biotechnology – the use of precise, state-of-the-art molecular techniques for genetically improving varieties of microorganisms, plants and animals – is a case m [sic] point.
As the government makes decisions about consumer products, fear and intimidation from several possible sources may distort the accurate assessment of risks, benefits and possible alternatives. This can lead to decisions that are harmful from both an economic and humanitarian perspective. Understanding the emotional dimension can help health and food professionals and scientists to address largely emotional responses by the public and enable them to make more clear-headed decisions free from cynical manipulation.
Information overload of the public is a strategy often used by those who would elicit fear about or disparage new technology.
The wish for a return to a childlike world of purity and innocence This romantic, puerile view of the physical world, reflecting a wish to escape from complex realities and choices, can give rise to a kind of puritanical, anti-technological view of the world. Purity and simplicity become desired ends in themselves, to the exclusion of other goals such as feeding and sheltering the inhabitants of the planet.
Manipulation of environmental anxieties The hidden agenda of many of those who have attempted the "greening o American society government – environmental organizations, political leaders, and the media – is their own self-interest. But a by-product of their misinformation campaigns is progressively more widespread acceptance of junk science. Clouding the public’s understanding of the development of new, biotechnology-derived varieties of crop plants, certain environmental organizations and the media have raised misinformation to an art form. The New York Times even coined the term, “Frankenfood.” What has been lost is the ability to discriminate between plausibility and reality.
@AMcD (My note: Personally, this is sounding all too familiar of late. I think you know what I mean.)
Kaiser met his future wife, Bess Fosburgh, the daughter of a Virginia lumberman, when she came into his photographic shop in Lake Placid, New York, to buy film. Fosburgh’s father demanded that Kaiser show that he was financially stable before he would consent to their marriage. Kaiser moved to Spokane and became a top salesman at a hardware company, returning ten months later with enough money to placate his future father-in-law. They married on April 8, 1907, and had two children, Edgar Kaiser, Sr and Henry Kaiser, Jr. (my emphasis)
Edgar was born in Seattle and spent his youth growing on construction camps of his father Henry J. Kaiser. He gained experience fulfilling junior roles in the associated construction sites, but opted to study economics when he attended the University of California. In 1930 he left in his final year without graduating, but with his father’s approval. He went to work on pipeline construction. Then in 1932 he moved on work on the Boulder Dam. Here he started as a shovel foreman before being promoted to superintendent of canyon excavation. He then moved on to working on the Bonneville Dam.
Who was Edgar Kaiser Sr. married to? . . . Susan MEAD (daughter of Elwood Mead – for whom Lake Mead was named)
Mrs. Kaiser was the daughter of Elwood Mead, first director of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
Hoover Dam, which was named after Pres. Herbert Hoover, came online in the 1930s. Behind the dam was Lake Mead – which was named after Elwood Mead, an engineer who specialized in irrigation.
Southern Nevada’s boaters today take to a lake whose namesake opposed the very law creating the waterway.
A 1902 law – the Federal Reclamation Act – paved the way for Hoover Dam to be built (and help create what would eventually be named Lake Mead).
“The Federal Reclamation Act came about in 1902 to fund irrigation projects in the West, but Mead opposed the law,” an article about Mead on the Indiana Public Media website stated.
Mead followed his opposition of the federal law with a move to Australia, where he worked on water issues Down Under.* *The engineer and irrigation expert would return to the United States several years later as a professor at the University of California and chair of the California Land Settlement Board. But Mead would eventually play a pivotal role in directing and developing new reclamation projects, such as Hoover Dam.
Construction of the dam began in 1931; it was commissioned in 1935. Mead would pass away in 1936 – and the lake was named after him later that same year.
Mead, who was born in Indiana before being hailed as the “Engineer Who Made the Desert Bloom,” was also responsible for establishing water policy in Wyoming and the constructions of Owyhee Dam in Oregon and Grand Coulee Dam in Washington. He was appointed as the Commissioner of Reclamation in 1924. (my emphasis)
In 1923 and again in 1927, he went to Palestine to help the Zionists develop irrigation and development plans. At the USBR, Mead oversaw the planning and execution of construction of major water control and irrigation projects in the West: the Hoover, Grand Coulee and Owyhee dams. (my emphasis)
As I have attempted to convey . . . There are many moving parts when it comes to the story surrounding Lake Mead’s history, and its current ordeal . . . Together, what busy beavers the Kaisers and Meads were . . . in building dams . . . A real family affair.
Any insights on how they could be purposefully draining lake mead, or knowingly knew it would only last so long.
Have they intentionally opened up the drain valves beyond what is needed to sustain a proper level, or allowing up stream farmers and cites to take more than is needed, or is it what happens as upstream populations grow and need more water, for instance. We know climate change is not real so what’s draining it.
Empire is good at planned obsolesce to usher in their new save the world brain child!
Climate Change officially started in 2000 (lol). Interesting timing. They are draining it on purpose for sure. The scary images are needed for climate change information warfare. Used to persuade the unassuming masses and as a psychological tactic to usher in their long standing solutions. The people in California in particular.
Excerpt from Wikipedia:
Before the filling of Lake Powell (a reservoir of similar size to Lake Mead) behind Glen Canyon Dam, the Colorado River flowed largely unregulated into Lake Mead, making Mead more vulnerable to drought. From 1953 to 1956, the water level fell from 1,200 to 1,085 feet (366 to 331 m). During the filling of Lake Powell from 1963 to 1965, the water level fell from 1,205 to 1,090 feet (367 to 332 m). Many wet years from the 1970s to the 1990s filled both lakes to capacity, reaching a record high of 1,225 feet (373 m) in the summer of 1983.
In these decades prior to 2000, Glen Canyon Dam frequently released more than the required 8.23 million acre-feet (10,150,000 megaliters) to Lake Mead each year. That allowed Lake Mead to maintain a high water level despite releasing significantly more water than it is contracted for.
There is even a superhero called Deadpool. Lots of transmedia subluminal messaging at play in this superhero story. Interesting!