Bell Rituals, NYSE, Door Bells, Alarm Bells, Emergency Imprinting, SIGINT, Edwards Signaling, Semiconductors, Ring Smart Doorbells

The NYSE Bell

One of the most familiar images of the NYSE on the evening news is the loud ringing of a bell, signaling the opening or closing of the day’s trading.

Trading floor bells are more than just a colorful tradition. They are critical to the orderly functioning of the marketplace, assuring that no trades take place before the opening or after the close.

The History of the Bell

First Uses of the Bell

Bells were first used at the Exchange in the 1870s with the advent of continuous trading. A Chinese gong was the original bell of choice. But in 1903, when the Exchange moved to its current building, the gong was replaced by a brass bell – electrically operated and large enough in size to resonate throughout the voluminous main trading floor. Today, each of the four trading areas of the NYSE has its own bell, operated synchronously from a single control panel.

The brass bells functioned without incident until the late 1980s, when the NYSE decided the time had come to refurbish them and purchase a new one for backup. With that decision, the Exchange learned just how unusual its bells really are.

First, the Exchange had to identify the manufacturer of the bells – a firm with which the NYSE hadn’t done business in more than 80 years. With some digging, the G. S. Edwards Company of Norwalk, Connecticut, was rediscovered.

However, when the NYSE officials explained that they wanted to purchase a new bell, measuring 18 inches in diameter and matching the old, representatives of the Edwards Company were astonished. It seems that neither Edwards nor any other company, makes bells anywhere near that large – or loud – today.

Edwards agreed to make a new bell from scratch, bringing former employees out of retirement to handle the job. Sound measurements were taken, and the tone of the bell was matched to the NYSE’s existing bells.

A Hidden Discovery

Along the way, too, came the discovery of a massive old bell hidden within the infrastructure of the NYSE. An electrical contractor, on hearing of the plans to upgrade the bell system, recalled how he had once seen a bell in the crawl space above the ceiling of the main trading room. The long-forgotten beauty – a whopping 27 inches in diameter and covered with a thick coat of dust – was removed and reconditioned. It turned out to be another 1903 original and is believed to have been buried in its resting place for half a century because it was simply too loud even for the Exchange. Toned down, it now gleams on a platform above the trading floor, patiently awaiting its recall to duty if the need ever arises.

When the NYSE moved into its new building at 10-12 Broad Street in 1865, “calls” of stock were made twice a day in the second floor Board Room. The president kept order during trading sessions with the aid of a gavel.

The gavel has always been used in conjunction with the closing bell, perhaps in recognition of the 19th century stock calls. The gavel strikes a “sounding block,” a turned block of wood, possibly oak, from the center part of a log (you can see tree rings on the bottom side). This sounding block, or one of a similar size and shape, appears in the 1928 motion picture film, “The Nation’s Marketplace.”

Some additional bell facts:

  • The first guest to ring the opening bell was Leonard Ross, in 1956 . The 10-year-old had won a television quiz show answering questions about the stock market.
  • An expert analyzed the sound of the bell for the NYSE’s trademark registration as follows: "The mark consists of the sound of a brass bell tuned to the pitch D, but with an overtone of D-sharp, struck nine times at a brisk tempo, with the final tone allowed to ring until the sound decays naturally. The rhythmic pattern is eight 16th notes and a quarter note; the total duration, from the striking of the first tone to the end of the decay on the final one, is just over 3 seconds."

Edwards Signaling Company History

Founded by Robert Edwards & David Rousseau in 1872 The Edwards Company has had a rich history of accomplishments.

The History of Edwards Signaling

  • 1872- Edwards and Company was founded by Robert Edwards & David Rousseau to explore the new phenomenon of “Electricity” and to manufacture, sell and install battery-operated gas-fixture igniters. Among the company’s first customers, a New York City church where sextons previously had climbed a 100-foot ladder to light gas fixtures located high above the pews.

  • 1873 Rousseau withdrew from the partnership and his place was taken by Adam Lungen. They invented and developed and electric doorbell and a burglar alarm.

  • 1880- Edwards Company left the basement of the Lungen family’s jewelry store, moved into a three-story plant, and began manufacturing wooden conduits and housings for burglar alarms.

  • 1881- Robert Edwards obtained his first patent for an electric bell. Other patents quickly followed: a drop-type annunciator (1882); an electric gas burner lighter for push-button operation (1883); and an electric door opener (1884).

  • 1884- Edwards displayed its wares at the first electrical show in the United States. Held in Philadelphia, it was called the “Electrical Exhibit, National Conference of Electricians.”

  • 1886- Along with burglar alarms and fixture igniters, the Edwards catalog listed for the first time electrically wound clocks, program systems, and coils.

  • 1896- Edwards stopped installing electrical devices and limited its activities to the design and manufacture of signaling, communications and protection equipment.

  • 1900- Bell with horizontally actuated plunger devised. The basic design is used for today’s Edwards AdaptaBel .

  • 1901- First national distributor of “electrical house goods” appointed by Edwards Company.

  • 1903- New York Stock Exchange bell installed to start the beginning and ending of trading each day.

  • 1912- Edwards carriage call, an all-weather annunciator for department store marquees, introduced.

  • 1915- Bronze Medal of Honor for electrical products awarded to Edwards at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, CA.

  • 1917- Watertight bells and submarine detection devices built for the Navy, special telegraph apparatus developed for the Signal Corps.

  • 1927- Holland Tunnel opened with Edwards emergency signaling installed in twin 2-mile tubes. Electrical devices for the White House ordered from Edwards.

  • 1929- Montreal Curb Exchange ordered “Silent Paging” annunciators. Edwards & Company of Canada was founded.

  • 1935- Lungen buzzers 11,300 feet below the earth’s surface vibrated survey instrument at the bottom of the world’s deepest oil well. Edwards watchman’s tour, sprinkler, and fire alarm system installed at Rockefeller Center in New York City.

  • 1936- New break-glass fire stations introduced to replace hammer and chain types.

  • 1938- Edwards annunciators and signaling systems specified by Boeing Aircraft Co. for double-deck flying clipper ships.

  • 1941- World’s largest car ferry, the City of Midland, left its Michigan waterways equipped with Edwards watertight signals. Budd Co. equipped its newest “Silver Meteor” trains with Edwards annunciators.

  • 1945- Edwards awarded its fifth Army-Navy E.

  • 1948- Edwards-made fire alarms installed aboard SS President Cleveland and SS President Wilson, new round-the-world cruise ships. James H. McGraw Award, Manufacturers Medal of the Year, presented to R. S. Edwards.

  • 1950- New Edwards plant in Canada opened at Owen Sound, Ontario.

  • 1951- Tear-drop fire alarm station introduced: called by Associated Press “a model of fool-proof simplicity.”

  • 1956- Manufacturing facilities for distributor products transferred to new Pittsfield, Maine plant.

  • 1961- Audio-visual nurse call with patient privacy feature shown at American Hospital Association Exposition, Atlantic City, NJ.

  • 1962- Edwards Company becomes an operating unit of General Signal Corporation.

  • 1964- Edwards fire alarm system specified for world’s largest structure, the 52-story Vertical Assembly Building at Cape Kennedy.

  • 1965- Edwards systems installed in Visual Arts Museum designed by LeCorbusier for campus of Harvard University.

  • 1966- Police and fire control centers for the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, largest municipal public system in Canada, designed and installed by Edwards.

  • 1967- Edwards supplied 77 fire alarm systems to Expo '67, Montreal.

  • 1971- JFK Center for the Performing Arts equipped with Edwards fire alarm system.

  • 1973- Edwards acquires Electrons, Inc., maker of the Cat. 280 series heat detector.

  • 1976- Edwards introduces a new ionization smoke detector.

  • 1979- Edwards introduces the new Greenline Series Fire Alarm Bells.

  • 1981- Edwards incorporates state-of-the-art micro-processor technology into a new generation of “programmable” signals with the launch of the Adaptatone product line.

  • 1982- Edwards begins a planned expansion of hazardous location audible and visual signals that will result in the most up-to-date and complete line in the industry.

*** 1984- The first Edwards piezo-electric signals are introduced, marking the introduction of the latest technology in light duty signaling.**

  • 1985- Edwards begins a planned expansion of industrial strobes and beacon products that will result in the highest quality and most complete line in the industry today.

  • 1986- A new, current technology photoelectric smoke detector is introduced by Edwards.

  • 1994- Edwards acquires the signaling product line from Benjamin Division of Thomas Industries. These new products, previously manufactured in Sparta, TN are consolidated into the Pittsfield, Maine plant.

  • 1994- Edwards introduces highly advanced, multi-element sensor technology into the “Commercial” fire alarm market place. State-of-the-art manufacturing processes are established at the Pittsfield plant to support production of these products.

  • 1998 - Edwards introduces a new line a stackable visual signals, LED flashing and steady visual signals and strobes. The new Triliptical stacklite was designed around customer input.

  • 2005 - Edwards acquired by General Electric. Edwards was combined with the Kalatel, Sentrol and EST businesses to become part of GE Security. The company was well positioned to become an international leader in video, fire and access control.

  • 2010 - GE Security acquired by United Technologies Corporation. Edwards Signaling becomes part of the Detection & Alarm business under UTC Fire & Security.

  • Today. . . With headquarters in Farmington, CT, manufacturing in Pittsfield, ME, distribution in Portland, TN, and Sales and Service locations around the world, it seems a long way back to the basement of Lungen’s jewelry store. Yet, many of the different products that Edwards makes today, are direct descendants of the gas fixture igniters, electric bells and program systems that went into the design and construction of structures over one hundred years ago.

Like many of the other door chimes in Edwards 1941 range, the Colonial’s cover was made of a composite wood material branded as Sylvite.

Fashioned of Sylvite. Edwards & Company has chosen this wonderfully durable composition wood for the new models. Sylvite is made in a wide variety of colors and finishes, and is the only material which accurately reproduces old wood carvings.

Sylvite did not appear after the war as plastic became the favored material for door chimes.

Another design element of this chime, and others from Edwards for many years, is the placement of the hanger for the shorter tube. Placing it higher than the longer bells’ hanger exaggerates the difference in length.

United Technologies

United Technologies Corporation United technologies logo.svg220x55
Type Public
Traded as NYSE: UTX
Industry Conglomerate
Predecessor United Aircraft Corporation
Founded September 26, 1934 (as United Aircraft Corporation)
May 1, 1975 (as United Technologies Corporation)
Founder Frederick Rentschler (for the United Aircraft line)
Defunct April 3, 2020
Fate Merged with Raytheon Corporation to form Raytheon Technologies; Otis and Carrierspun off.
Successors * Raytheon Technologies

United States[1]
Area served Worldwide
Key people * Gregory J. Hayes

United Technologies Corporation (UTC) was an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut.[1] It researched, developed, and manufactured products in numerous areas, including aircraft engines, aerospace systems, HVAC, elevators and escalators, fire and security, building automation, and industrial products, among others. UTC was also a large military contractor, getting about 10% of its revenue from the U.S. government.[3][4] Gregory J. Hayes was the CEO and chairman.[5]

In April 2020 UTC merged with the Raytheon Company to form Raytheon Technologies.[6]

The term “RADAR” was coined by the Navy in 1940 and agreed to by the Army in 1941. The first Signal Corps Field Manual on Aircraft Warning Service defined RADAR as “a term used to designate radio sets SCR (Signal Corps Radio)-268 and SCR-270 and similar equipment”. The SCR-268and 270 were not radios at all, but were designated as such to keep their actual function secret.[citation needed] Although important offensive applications have since been developed, radar emerged historically from the defensive need to counter the possibility of massive aerial bombardment.

In 1941, the laboratories at Fort Monmouth developed the SCR-300, the first FM backpack radio. Its pioneering frequency modulation circuits provided front-line troops with reliable, static-free communications. The labs also fielded multichannel FM radio relay sets (e.g., AN/TRC-1) in the European Theater of Operations as early as 1943. Multichannel radio broadcasting allowed several channels of communications to be broadcast over a single radio signal, increasing security and range and relieving frequency spectrum crowding.

1 Like
1 Like

1 Like

The bell is an incredibly ancient ritual tool. When being struck, the bell produces vibrations that are filled with power in accordance to the bell’s fullness, tone and material.

Bells of all sizes are being used across the world, the bell of Notre Dame in France for example. Over the years, people have been singing songs and carols with these instruments, which is in part the reason for the bell’s association with winter holidays.

A bell is a female symbol and often used in rituals to invite the Goddess. The chimes of the bell are used to reflect negative spells and evil spirits and encourage good energy. When not in use, you can keep the bell inside of a cabinet or hang it on a door to guard your home, or simply place it on your altar for future use. The element associated with the bell is Air.

During rituals, there is a meaning to the number of times the bell is struck:

1 – a new beginning
2 – the number of the God, unity
3 – the number of the Goddess, creativity
4 – grounding and balance
5 – inspiration
6 – harmony
7 – acquire wisdom
8 – achievement
9 – transition to a new level

Two dōtaku (ritual bells), 200 B.C.E.–200 C.E., Yayoi Period, bronze, Japan, 59.7 cm high (© Trustees of the British Museum). The larger bell on the left is mentioned in the publication Dōtaku Kozu (1822), where it says it was discovered in Wakayama Prefecture in the collection of Kishi Seiichi.

The origin of the dōtaku is thought to be the Chinese cattle bell. However, the Japanese did not practice cattle farming, so the first bells must have been imported as ritual objects. The fact that they are often found buried on isolated hill-sides and show evidence of having been buried and dug up several times, suggests their use in an agricultural ritual. Dōtaku were cast in moulds made up of pieces of stone carved with decorative patterns. Some of these stones have also been excavated. The earliest bells have suspension rings and clappers. These rings gradually became larger, and part of the bell’s overall design. The clappers only produced a muffled tone, underlining the fact that these were ritual objects not intended to be rung.

The delicate decoration on these bells resembles that found on contemporary Chinese mirrors. Later bells were decorated with scenes of animals and humans hunting or farming. Bells up to twice this size have been found.

1 Like

“optical mask” jumped out at me there - masking